Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, volume 37 issue 4 (december 2018) : 283-290

Whey Proteins: A potential ingredient for food industry- A review

Ranganathan Kumar, Sulaxana Kumari Chauhan, Gokul Shinde, Vijayalakshmi Subramanian, Shanmugam Nadanasabapathi
1DRDO- Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore-570 011, Karnataka, India.
Cite article:- Kumar Ranganathan, Chauhan Kumari Sulaxana, Shinde Gokul, Subramanian Vijayalakshmi, Nadanasabapathi Shanmugam (2018). Whey Proteins: A potential ingredient for food industry- A review. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 37(4): 283-290. doi: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1389.
Whey, a byproduct of cheese and whey manufacturing was considered as waste of dairy industry. There has been a continuous increase in dry whey production due to advances in processing technologies such as ultra filtration, reverse osmosis and nanofiltration process. High value whey based ingredients has received much more attention in food industry due to its exceptional functional and nutritional properties. It is an important source of bioactive peptides, essential amino acids, b-Lactoglobulin, Lactalbumin, Immunoglobulin, Lactoferrin. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI) and hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP) are the key products obtained from whey. Whey protein plays an important role in development of whey protein based functional food in addition to its therapeutic application. Whey protein extensively used as an antimicrobial in edible film and as protective material to improve shelf life of food. The purpose of this review to highlight the importance of whey protein as a source of new-generation functional ingredients in food industry.
  1. Aguilar, C. N., Aguilar-Gonzalez, M. A., Rojas, R., Rodriguez-Jasso, R. M., Rodríguez-Herrera, R., Alvarez-Pérez, O. B. (2017). Whey protein-based Edible Films: Progress and Prospects. In Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 5:161-182. Apple Academic Press.
  2. Akalýn, A. S., Karagozlu, C., Unal, G. (2008). Rheological properties of reduced-fat and low-fat ice cream containing whey protein isolate and inulin. European Food Research and Technology, 227: 889-895.
  3. Anker, M., Berntsen, J., Hermanson, A. M., Stading, M. (2002). Improved water vapor barrier of whey protein films by addition of an acetylated monoglyceride. Innovative Food Sci. & Emerging Technologies, 3:81-92.
  4. Bae, E. K. and Lee, S. J. (2008). Microencapsulation of avocado oil by spray drying using whey protein and maltodextrin. Journal of Microencapsulation, 25:549-560.
  5. Bajaj, R. K. and Sangwan, R. B. (2002). Health enhancing potential of whey proteins - a review. Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 55 (5): 253-260.
  6. Balcao, V. M., Costa, C. I., Matos, C. M., Moutinho, C. G., Amorim, M., Pintado, M. E., Teixeira, J. A. (2013). Nanoencapsulation of bovine lactoferrin for food and biopharmaceutical applications. Food Hydrocolloids, 32:425–431.
  7. Baruchel, S., Bounous, G., Falutz, J., Gold, P. (1993). Whey proteins as a food supplement in HIV - Sero positive individuals. Clinical Investigation and Medicine, 16: 204 - 209.
  8. Berry, T. K., Yang, X. and Foegeding, E. A. (2009). Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality. Journal of Food Science, 74 (5).
  9. Blomstrand, E. and Newsholme, E. A. (1992). Effect of branched chain amino acid supplementation on the exercise induced change in aromatic amino acid concentration in human muscle. Acta Physiologica, 146: 293-298.
  10. Cisneros Zevallos, L. and Krochta, J. M. (2003). Whey protein coatings for fresh fruits and relative humidity effects. Journal of Food Science, 68:176-181.
  11. Conforti, P. A. and Lupano, C. E. (2004). Functional properties of biscuits with whey protein concentrate and honey. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39:745-753.
  12. De Wit, J. N. (1998). Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products. Journal of dairy science, 81:597-608.
  13. Di Pierro, P., Sorrentino, A., Mariniello, L., Giosafatto, C. V. L., Porta, R. (2011). Chitosan/whey protein film as active coating to extend Ricotta cheese shelf-life. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44:2324-2327.
  14. Dordoni, R., De Cesare, S., Casali, M., Lambri, M., Spigno, G., and De Faveri, D. M. (2017). Stabilization of fat fraction in walnut-    based freeze dried products. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 57:1903-1908.
  15. Durham, R. J., Harian, J. A., Sleigh, R. W. Johnson, R. L. (1997). Whey fractionation: Wheying up consequences. Food Australia, 49: 460-465.
  16. Elias, R. J., Kellerby, S. S., Decker, E. A. (2008). Antioxidant activity of proteins and peptides. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48:430-441.
  17. FAO (2004) Statistical Database. Food and Agricultural Organization. United Nations Organization, Rome (www.
  18. Food and Agriculture organization / World Health Organization / United Nations University (1985). Energy and protein requirements: report of a Joint FAO / WHO / UNO expert consultation. World Health Organization, Technical Report, 724: 1 – 206.
  19. Gadang, V. P., Hettiarachchy, N. S., Johnson, M. G., and Owens, C. (2008). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of whey protein isolate coating incorporated with nisin, grape seed extract, malic acid, and EDTA on a turkey frankfurter system. Journal of Food Science, 73(8).
  20. Geoffrey W. Krissansen (2007) Emerging health properties of whey proteins and their clinical implications, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 26(6): 713S-723S, DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2007.10719652.
  21. Ghosh and Singh (1997). Effect of mushroom levels on the quality of mushroom – Whey soup powder. Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 50: 136.
  22. Ha, E., and Zemel, M. B. (2003). Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 14:251-258.
  23. Hemaprabha, P., Sudha, P. and Athmaselvi, K. A. (2003). Substitution of skim milk powder with whey protein concentrate in ice cream (abstract). Souvnir 5th IFCON, Innovative food technologies and quality systems strategies for global competitiveness: 109: 155.
  24. Hoerr, R. A. and Bostwick, E. F. (2000). Bioactive proteins and probiotic bacteria: modulators of nutritional health. Nutrition, 16:711-713.
  25. Hofi, M., Fayed, A., El-Awamry, Z., Hofi, A. (1993). Substitution of non fat milk solids in ice cream with ultrafiltration whey protein concentrate. Egyptian Journal of Food Science (Egypt).
  26. Huffman, L. M. (1996). Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient. Food Technology, 50:49 – 52.
  27. Hugunin, A. G. (1987). Applications of UF whey protein: developing new markets- ultrafiltrated whey. International Dairy Federation.
  28. Ibrahim, H. R., Ahmed, A. S., Miyata, T. (2017). Novel angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from caseins and whey proteins of goat milk. Journal of Advanced Research, 8:63-71.
  29. Jayaprakasha, H. (1998). Whey Protein Concentrate in dairy and bakery products-Report of Adhoc Reasearch Project. ICAR.
  30. Jayaprakasha, H. M. and Brueckner, H. (1999). Whey Protein concentrate: A potential functional ingredients for food industry. Journal of Food Science and Technology 36: 189-204.
  31. Jayaprakasha, H. M., Satyanarayana, H. and Shobha, Bhat. (2000a). Effect of whey protein concentrate on the quality attributes of frozen yoghurt. Proceedings of International Conference on processed food for 21st century held at Jadhavpur University, Kolkatta, 224-229.
  32. Kaur, A. P., Kaur, A., Bakshi, A. K., Kamble, U. M. (2003). Studies on the development of egg free cakes (abstract). Souvenir 5th IFCON, Innovative food technologies and quality systems strategies for global competitiveness: 109.
  33. Keri Marshall and N. D. (2004). Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Alternative Medicine Review, 9:136-156.
  34. Layman, D. K., Lonnerdal, B., Fernstrom, J. D. (2018). Applications for á-lactalbumin in human nutrition. Nutrition Reviews, 76:444-460.
  35. Lee, S. Y, Dangaran, K. L., Krochta, J. M. (2002b). Gloss stability of whey protein / plasticizer coatings formulations on chocolate surface. Journal of Food Science, 67: 1121-1125.
  36. Li, G. H., Le, G. W., Shi, Y. H., and Shrestha, S. (2004). Angiotensin I–converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins and their physiological and pharmacological effects. Nutrition Research, 24:469-486.
  37. Lifrah, E. V., Hourigan, J. A., Sleigh, R. W. Johnson. (2000). New Wheys for Lactose. Food Australia, 52: 120-125.
  38. Mathur, B. N. and Shahani, K. M. (1979). Use of total whey constituents for human food. Journal of Dairy Science, 62:99-105.
  39. Molayi, R., Ehsani, A., Yousefi, M. (2018). The antibacterial effect of whey protein–alginate coating incorporated with the lactoperoxidase system on chicken thigh meat. Food Science and Nutrition.
  40. Mollea, C., Marmo, L., and Bosco, F. (2013). Valorisation of cheese whey, a by-product from the dairy industry. In Food Industry. InTech. DOI: 10.5772/53159
  41. Morr, C. V. and Ha, E. Y. W. (1993). Whey protein concentrates and isolates: Processing and functional properties. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 33: 431-476.
  42. Morr, C. V., Hoffmann, W. and Buchheim, W. (2003). Use of applied air pressure to improve the baking properties of whey protein isolates in angel food cakes. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 36: 83-90.
  43. Nielsen, N. S., Petersen, A., Meyer, A. S., Timm-Heinrich, M., and Jacobsen, C. (2004). Effects of lactoferrin, phytic acid and EDTA on oxidation in two food emulsions enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52:7690-7699.
  44. Patel, R. S., Gupta, V. K., Singh, S., Reuter, H. (1993). Effect of addition of whey protein concentrate on the sensory and Instron texture profile of khoa made from cow milk. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 30: 64-65.
  45. Patil, P., Wadehra, A., Garg, V., Munjal, K., Tomar, S and Mandal, S. (2015). Biofunctional properties of milk protein derived bioactive peptides - A review, Asian J. Dairy & Food Res, 34:253-258.
  46. Pena-Ramos, E. A. and Xiong, Y. L. (2003). Whey and soy protein hydrolysates inhibit lipid oxidation in cooked pork patties. Meat Science, 64:259-263.
  47. Perez-Gago, M. B. and Krochta, J. M. (2012). Protein-based films and coatings. Edible coatings and films to improve food quality, (Ed). A Gennadias. CRC Press LLC. Newyork.13-77.
  48. Perez-Gago, M. B., Serra, M., Alonso, M., Mateos, M., Del Rio, M. A. (2005). Effect of whey protein-and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-    based edible composite coatings on color change of fresh-cut apples. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 36:77-85.
  49. Puranik, D. B. (2003). Milk by-products as functional ingredients in bakery products. Beverage and Food world, 30: 21-22.
  50. Rai, K. V. and Jayaprakasha, H. M. (2004). Formulation of Instant Gulabjamun Mix from the Admixture of Spray Dried Skim Milk Powder and Whey Protein Concentrate, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41:244-247
  51. Rajoria, A, Chauhan, A. K., and Jitendra Kumar. (2011). Formulation of tomato juice enriched whey beverage using response surface methodology. J. Dairying. 30: 1-14.
  52. Rao, K. H., Rao, K. V. S. S., Singh, R. R. B., Anjaneyulu, A. S. R., Yadav, P. L. (1999a). Milk proteins as emulsion stabilizers in comminuted meat products. Indian Food Industry 18: 287-298.
  53. Rathour, A. K., Chauhan, A. K., Bhatia. K. L. (2004). Gelling properties of whey protein concentrate and its industrial applications. Indian Dairyman. 56: 61-66.
  54. Renner, E. and Abd-El-Salam, M. H. (1991). Application of ultrafiltration in the dairy industry. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.
  55. Rupnar P. S., Chavan, K.D., Pawar, B.K. and Bhosale, D.N. (2008). Utilization of kokum juice for preparation of paneer whey beverage. J. Dairying, Foods & H.S., 27: 19-25.
  56. Santos, M. B., da Costa, N. R., Garcia Rojas, E. E. (2018). Interpolymeric complexes formed between whey proteins and biopolymers: Delivery systems of bioactive ingredients. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17:792-805
  57. Schmid, M., Dallmann, K., Bugnicourt, E., Cordoni, D., Wild, F., Lazzeri, A., and Noller, K. (2012). Properties of whey-protein-    coated films and laminates as novel recyclable food packaging materials with excellent barrier properties. International Journal of Polymer Science,
  58. Seydim, A. C. and Sarikus, G. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils. Food Research International, 39:639-644.
  59. Sharma, A and Bhatia, K. L. (1999). Functional properties of whey protein concentrates – A review. Journal of Dairying Foods and Home Science, 18: 141-154.
  60. Sharma, R., Rajput, Y. S., and Mann, B. (2013). Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review. Dairy Science and Technology, 93:21-43.
  61. Shukla S and Dubey B. (2014). Development of idli using whey based dhal-rice blend Asian J. Dairy & Food Res, 33: 215-220.
  62. Singh, S., Chauhan, G. S., Raghuvanshi, R., Sharma, P., Chauhan, O. P. and Bajpai, A. (2003). Replacement of egg solids with whey protein concentrate and optimization of its levels in cake making. Journal of food Science and Technology, 40: 386-388.
  63. Smithers, G. W. (2008). Whey and whey proteins from ‘gutter-to-gold’. International Dairy Journal, 18 (7), 695-704.
  64. Sroan, B. S. and Kaur, A. (2003). Succeeding fat: A profile of fat replacers in food industry. Indian food industry, 22: 41-46.
  65. Sun, C., Liu, R., Liang, B., Wu, T., Sui, W., Zhang, M. (2018). Microparticulated whey protein-pectin complex: A texture-controllable gel for low-fat mayonnaise. Food Research International, 108:151-160.
  66. Tavares, T., Del Mar Contreras, M., Amorim, M., Pintado, M., Recio, I., Malcata, F. X. (2011). Novel whey-derived peptides with inhibitory effect against angiotensin-converting enzyme: in vitro effect and stability to gastrointestinal enzymes. Peptides, 32:1013-1019.
  67. Taylor, B. J. and Walsh, M. K. (2002). Development and Sensory analysis of a textured whey protein meatless patty. Journal of Food Science, 64: 1555-1558.
  68. Thapa, T. B and Gupta, V. K. (1996). Chemical and sensory qualities of processed cheese foods prepared with added whey protein concentrate. Indian Journal of Dairy science, 49:129-137.
  69. Thirumallesha A and Jayprakasha H. M. (1998). Effect of admixture of spray dried whey protein concetrate and buttermilk milk powder and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of icecream. Indian J. Dairy Science, 51:13-19
  70. Thompson, L. U., Reniers, D. J., Baker, L. M., Siu, M. (1983). Succinylated whey protein concentrates in ice cream and instant puddings. Journal of Dairy Science, 66:1630-1637.
  71. Tirumalesh, A and Jayaprakasha, H. M. (1998). Effects of admixture of spray dried whey protein concentrate and butter milk powder on Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of ice-cream. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 5: 13-18.
  72. Visalakshi, G and Mohanasundari, P. (2002). Incorporation of whey protein concentrate in maida based snacks and its consumer acceptability. The Indian Journal of Nutrition Dietetics, 39: 333.
  73. Walzem, R. L., Dillard, C. J., German, J. B. (2002). The Health benefits of whey. Food Science and Nutrition, 42: 42-353.
  74. Yadav, J. S. S., Yan, S., Pilli, S., Kumar, L., Tyagi, R. D., Surampalli, R. Y. (2015). Cheese whey: A potential resource to transform into bioprotein, functional/nutritional proteins and bioactive peptides. Biotechnology Advances, 33:756-774.
  75. Yalcin, A. S. (2006). Emerging therapeutic potential of whey proteins and peptides. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 12:1637-1643.
  76. Yang, X. and Foegeding, E. A. (2010). Effects of sucrose on egg white protein and whey protein isolate foams: factors determining properties of wet and dry foams (cakes). Food Hydrocolloids, 24:227-238.
  77. Yilsay, T. O., Yilmaz, L., Bayizit, A. A. (2006). The effect of using a whey protein fat replacer on textural and sensory characteristics of low-fat vanilla ice cream. European Food Research and Technology, 222:171-175

Editorial Board

View all (0)