Development of healthy multigrain biscuits from buckwheat-barley composite flours

DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1328    | Article Id: DR-1328 | Page : 120-125
Citation :- Development of healthy multigrain biscuits from buckwheat-barley composite flours.Asian Journal Of Dairy and Food Research.2018.(37):120-125

Anwar Hussain, Rajkumari Kaul and Anju Bhat

Anwar Hussain, Rajkumari Kaul and Anju Bhat
Address : Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Nyoma, Leh Ladakh-194 404, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Submitted Date : 25-11-2017
Accepted Date : 5-03-2018


Multigrain biscuits were formulated by blending refined wheat flour with barley and buckwheat flours in the ratios of 100:0:0::WF:BF:BWF; :100:0::WF:BF:BWF; 80:20:0::WF:BF:BWF; 70:20:10::WF:BF:BWF;60:20:20::WF:BF:BWF;50:20:30::WF:BF:BWF; 40:20:40::WF:BF:BWF; 30:20:50::WF:BF:BWF. Incorporation of buckwheat flour led to increase in mean calcium, iron and zinc contents of the biscuits. Among the blends the highest mean calcium of 68.96 mg/100g, iron of 9.22 mg/100g, zinc of 5.28 mg/100g were observed in treatment T8 (30:20:50::WF:BF:BWF). In terms of taste and flavour scores,T8 (30:20:50::WF:BF:BWF) was also adjudged the best treatment for the development of multigrain biscuits, whereas highest colour score of 8.05, texture score of 7.96 and overall acceptability score of 7.95 were observed in T1 (100:0:0::WF:BF:BWF).Biscuits were stored for a period of 90 days during which there was a significant decline in mineral contents as well as sensory attributes. Economically, the blended biscuits were found to be cheaper as compared to commercially available multigrain biscuits.


Apricot Barley Buckwheat Multigrain Biscuits Pseudo-Cereal.


  1. Alvarez-Jubete, L., Arendt, E.K. and Gallagher, E. (2009). Nutritive value and chemical composition of pseudocereals as gluten-free ingredients. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 60(S4): 240-257.
  2. Amerine, M.A., Pangborn, R.H. and Rossler, E.B. (1965). Principles Of Sensory Evaluation of Food. Academic Press, New York. pp. 23-45. 
  3. Arshad, U., Anjum, F.M., Rehman, S.U. and Sohaib, M. (2014). Development and characterization of multigrain cookies. Pakistan Journal of Food Science, 24(1): 1-5.
  4. Bonafaccia, G., Gambelli, L., Fabjan, N. and Kreft, I. (2003a). Trace elements in flour and bran from common and tartary buckwheat. Food Chemistry, 83: 1-5.
  5. Bonafaccia, G., Marocchini, M. and Kreft, I. (2003b). Composition and technological properties of the flour and bran from common and tartary buckwheat. Food Chemistry, 80: 9-15.
  6. Chapman, H.D. and Pratt, F.P. (1961). Ammonium Vandate-molybdate method for determination of phosphorus. Methods of Analysis for Sloils, Plants And Water. (1st ed.), pp. 184-203, California University, Agriculture Division, USA.
  7. Chopra, N., Dhillon, B. and Puri, S. (2014). Formulation of buckwheat cookies and their nutritional, physical, sensory and microbiological analysis. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research, 5(3): 381-387. 
  8. Dietrych-Szostak, D. and Oleszek, W. (1999). Effect of processing on the flavonoid content in buckwheat (FagopyrumesculentumMoench) grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47: 4383-4387.
  9. Fessas, D., Signorelli, M., Pagani, A., Mariotti, M., Iametti, S. and Schiraldi, A. (2008). Guidelines for buckwheat enriched bread. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry,91: 9-16.
  10. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (2010). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research (edn. 2nd). A Whiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons. New York .pp. 680. 
  11. Gupta, M., Bawa, A.S. and Abu-Ghannam, N. (2011a). Effect of barley flour and freeze-thaw cycles on textural, nutritional and functional properties of cookies. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 89: 520-527.
  12. Holtekjolen, A.K., Kinitz, C. and Knutsen, S.H. (2006). Flavanol and bound phenolic acid contents in different barley varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54 (6): 2253-2260.
  13. Hooda, S. and Jood, S. (2005). Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat biscuits supplemented with untreated and treated fenugreek flour. Food Chemistry,90:427-435.
  14. Izydorczyk, M. S. and Dexter, J. E. (2008). Barley â-glucans and arabinoxylans: Molecular structure, physicochemical properties and uses in food products - Areview. Food Research International, 41: 850-868.
  15. Kayashita, J., Shimaoka, I., Nakajoh, M. and Kato, N. (1996). Feeding of buckwheat protein extract reduces hepatic triglyceride concentration, adipose tissue weight and hepatic lipogenesis in rats. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 7: 555–559.
  16. Kreft, I., Fabjan, N. and Yasumoto, K. (2006). Rutin content in buckwheat (FagopyrumesculentumMoench) food materials and products. Food Chemistry, 98: 508-512.
  17. Liu, Z., Ishikawa, W., Huang, X., Tomotake, H., Kayashita, J. and Watanabe, H. (2001). A buckwheat protein product suppresses 1,2-    dimethylhydrazineinduced colon carcinogenesis in rats by reducing cell proliferation. Journal of Nutrition, 131: 1850-1853. 
  18. Misfa, h., Rehman, S., Huma, N. and Rafiq, F. (2000). Studies on wheat atta fortified with elemental iron used for chapatti production. Pakistan Journal of Food Science, 10(3-4): 5-7. 
  19. Potty, V.H. (1996). Physico-chemical aspects, physiological functions, nutritional importance and technological significance of dietary fibres- a critical appraisal. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 33: 1-18.
  20. Rubin, S.H., Emisi, A. Scalpi, L. (1997). Micronutrient addition to cereal grain products. Cereal Chemistry, 54(4): 895-903.
  21. Sangwan, V. and Dahiya, S. (2013). Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of wheat-sorghum-soybean composite flours and their biscuits. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 32(1): 65-70. 
  22. Schober, T.J., Brien, C.M., McCarthy, D., Barnedde, A. and Arendt, E.K. (2003). Influence of gluten free flour mixes and fat powders in the quality of gluten free biscuits. European Food Research Technology, 5:369-376.
  23. Sedej, I., Sakac, M., Mandic, A., Misan, A., Pestoric, M. and Simurina, O. (2011b). Quality assessment of gluten-free crackers based on buckwheatflour. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44:694–699.
  24. Sharma, P. and Gujral, H.S. (2010a). Antioxidant and polyphenols oxidase activity of germinated barley and its milling fractions. Food Chemistry, 120: 673-678.
  25. Sharma, P., Gujral, H. S. and Singh, B. (2012). Antioxidant activity of barley as affectedby extrusion cooking. Food Chemistry, 131: 1406-1413.
  26. Sikandara, A. and Boora, P.(2009). Nutritioinal evalution of sorghum and chickpea incorporated value addes products. Journal of Dairying, Food and Home Science, 28(4): 181-185.
  27. Skrabanja, V., Kreft, I., Golob, T., Modic, M., Ikeda, S. and Ikeda, K. (2004). Nutrient content in buckwheat milling fractions. Cereal Chemistry, 81: 172-176.
  28. Steadman, K. J., Burgoon, M. S., Lewis, B. A., Edwardson, S. E. and Obendorf, R. L. (2001). Minerals, phytic acid, tannin and rutin in buckwheat seed milling fractions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81: 1094-1100.
  29. Tomotake, H., Shimaoka, I., Kayashita, J., Yokoyama, F., Nakajoh, M. and Kato, N. (2000). A buckwheat protein product suppresses gallstone formation and plasma cholesterol more strongly than soy protein isolate in hamsters. Journal of Nutrition, 130: 1670-1674.
  30. Whitley, P.R. (1995). Biscuit Manufacture. Applied Science Publisher Ltd. London, U.K.
  31. Yadav, B.S., Ritika, B.Y. and Roshan, L.Y. (2010). Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat flour for biscuit making. International Food Research Journal, 17:1067–1076.
  32. Yildiz, G. and Bigicli, N. (2012). Effects of whole buckwheat flour on physical, chemical and sensory properties of flat bread, Lavas. Czech Journal of Food Science, 30(6): 534-540. 

Global Footprints