The socio-economic conditions, diet and nutrient adequancy of 72 lactating tribal mothers residing in four villages of Ranchi district were assessed. The study revealed that majority of households belonged to nuclear families with medium family size and farming as their primary occupation. Except cereal, the diet of tribal mothers were inadequate and far below the recommended amount. Results of diet survey further showed that the per cent adequacy of only roots and tuber and other vegetables was 94 and 82 per cent, respectively. For rest of the food stuffs the percent adequacy was found to be between 13 to 37 per cent. Calories and protein intake was found to be 82 and 69 per cent, respectively.