Growth performance of piglets in first phase (35-70 days) and 2nd phase (70-112 days) are presented in Table 2. The average daily weight gain of pigs in the first phase of groups B, C and D, were: 17.05%; 17.69% and 22.20% significantly (P<0.05) higher than control (A). Likewise, during the 2nd phase, the group of pigs that received feed containing YC (B, C and D), were: 17.19%; 17.19% and 21.75% significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control.
Table 2. Growth performance of piglets in the starter-grower and 2nd phase period and the population of Eschericia coli and Coliform in the faecal of piglets fed rations with YC supplementation.
Supplementation of YC in piglet feed in the first phase, significantly (P<0.05) reduced the FCR value (feed consumption: weight gain; g/g). The average FCR values, during the 2nd phase period, in groups B, C and D were: 7.03%; 8.95% and 10.22% significantly (P<0.05) lower than in control pigs (group A). Supplementation of YC in feed has been shown to increase the performance of weaned piglets (Hansen et al., 2017; Kiros et al., 2018).
However, in several studies YC supplementation did not affect the growth, feed consumption and feed efficiency in piglets (Taranu et al., 2022).
The increase in feed consumption is a logical consequence of supporting high weight gain in piglets compared to piglets fed without probiotics. An increase in feed consumption will be followed by an increase in protein consumption, which has an impact on increasing meat synthesis (Bidura et al., 2012).
According to Kiros et al., (2018),
yeast may contribute to the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and improved performance of piglets. Li et al., (2016)
repoted that probiotics can increase broiler weight gain through beneficial modulation of the cecum microbiota. Giang et al., (2012)
reported that feed supplemented with probiotic increased ADG and feed efficiency. According to Dong et al., (2013),
one of the causes of the increased growth performance of piglets is the increased immune response in the early stages of the post-weaning period in piglets caused by probiotics in their feed.
The effects of supplementation of YC on digestibility of pigs are shown in Table 2. DM digestibility of feed in groups B, C and D, were increased significantly different (P<0.05): 6.68%; 6.33% and 6.97%, respectively than group A. The digestibility of OM in groups B, C and D increased significantly different (P<0.05): 5.83%; 5.57% and 6.54%, respectively higher than control. The digestibility of CP in group B, C and D pigs increased: 6.88%; 6.65% and 7.92% significantly (P<0.05) higher than control (A).
Cheng and Kim (2019)
; Jorgensen et al., (2016)
reported that post-weaning piglets and growth piglets fed with Bacillus licheniformis
supplementation significantly increased DM and CP digestibility, resulting in increased pig growth during the starter-finisher period. These results are in agreement with those reported by Lee et al., (2014)
that probiotics significantly increased CP and fat digestibility. The same thing was reported by Giang et al., (2012)
that feed supplemented with lactic acid bacteria had higher feed digestibility and had a lower incidence of diarrhea. Supplementation of 0.45% fermented feed products in pigs significantly increased villi and crypt height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum compared to controls (Lee et al., 2014),
so that nutrient absorption can be optimal. Feed supplementation with YC significantly increased DM and OM digestibility of feed (Bidura et al., 2012;
2019a; Grela et al., 2019)
and increased mineral absorption (Bidura et al., 2019b).
On the other hand, several researchers (Zurmiati et al., 2014)
reported that probiotics in feed had no effect on ADG and feed efficiency.
Population of Eschericia coli and Coliform in the small intestine
The number of E. coli
bacteria in pigs that received treatment B, C and D were: 80.84%; 79.50%; and 82.60% significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control (A). Likewise, the total population of Coliform
bacteria decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treatments B, C and D, were: 68.16%; 70.24% and 72.89% significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control. Benyacoub et al., (2003)
states that probiotics can compete with the colonization of harmful intestinal flora and maintain intestinal integrity. The same thing was reported by Arena et al., (2014)
and Grela et al., (2019)
that probiotics promote colonization of beneficial bacteria in gastro intestinal tract of host. The positive response of yeast given to piglets was due to to suppress the concentration of phatogenic bacteria in the intestinal tract of weaning piglets (White et al., 2002).
Yeast may contribute to the regulation of gut homeostasis and improved piglet performance (Kiros et al., 2018).
The feed supplemented with 5% S. cerevisiae
increased the level of IgA in the serum of piglets. Giang et al., (2012)
reported that feed supplemented with probiotics can reduced the number of E. coli
. The same thing was reported by Lee et al., (2014)
that feed supplemented with Bacillus subtilis
, significantly reduced the population of Clostridium spp.
in the cecum of pigs.
The research of Taranu et al., (2022)
showed that the use of 10% of feed products fermented by YC in feed can reduce piglets experiencing diarrhea during the experimental period and can reduce intestinal inflammation in piglets. Lee et al., (2014)
and Dumitru et al., (2021)
reported that piglets fed rations with additional fermented feed by the probiotic Bacillus subtilis
could increase nutrient digestibility and growth of piglets, as well as suppress the number of Clostridium spp.
in the cecum and has strong antibacterial activity against E. coli
and C. perfringens (Hanczakowska et al., 2017).
Conflicting results were reported by Cheng and Kim (2019)
that there are no effect on fecal microflora in post-weaning and growth piglets fed with B. licheniformis