Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, volume 41 issue 4 (december 2022) : 456-461

Optimization of Production Technique and Nutritional Evaluation of Leaf Protein Concentrate from Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

Shayani Bose, Rushda Anam Malik, Anuradha Dutta, N.C. Shahi, Raman Manoharlal, G.V.S. Saiprasad
1Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Udham Singh Nagar, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttarakhand, India.
Cite article:- Bose Shayani, Malik Anam Rushda, Dutta Anuradha, Shahi N.C., Manoharlal Raman, Saiprasad G.V.S. (2022). Optimization of Production Technique and Nutritional Evaluation of Leaf Protein Concentrate from Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 41(4): 456-461. doi: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1845.
Background: Leaf protein concentrate (LPC) is a cheap and feasible source of high-quality protein. Researchers found the protein quality of LPC is similar to first-class protein food. Tobacco is a protein-rich leaf but contains a high amount of nicotine. According to studies the leaf protein concentrate obtained from tobacco leaves is nicotine-free and also useful to gaining weight in malnourished rats. 
Methods: Fresh leaves were blended with distilled water in different leaf water ratio (1:3, 1:6,1:9 and 1;12). The juice was filtered and coagulated at different pH (acidic, basic and neutral) with different coagulating techniques (conventional heating, Microwave and Ultrasound) to standardize the optimum procedure for leaf protein concentrate extraction. The coagulant was filtered and dried in the oven.
Result: The maximum quantity of crude protein and LPC yield (62.34% and 4.7 g) was extracted with a 1:9 leaf water ratio at acidic pH by using citric acid followed by the conventional heating method. 

  1. Abowei, J.F.N. and Ekubo, A.T. (2011). A review of conventional and unconventional feeds in fish nutrition. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2(4): 179-191.

  2. Adeyeye, E.I. and Omolayo, F.O. (2011). Chemical composition and functional properties of leaf protein concentrates of Amaranthushybridus and Telfairiaoccidentalis. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2(3): 499-511.

  3. Angotra, J., Bukhari, R., Shah, R.H., Sharma, K. (2021). Phytomorphology and nutrient dynamics of mulberry leaf. Agricultural Science Digest. 41(2): 265-273.

  4. AOAC. (2012). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. 19th Edn., AOAC International, Washington, USA.

  5. Aruna, R.P., Abeysinghe, I.S. and Jayaweera, C.D. (2007). Optimization of conditions for preparing leaf protein concentrate from refuse tea. Journal of Food Science and Technology- Mysore. 44(4): 413-416.

  6. Casas, G.A., Huang, C., Stein, H.H. (2017). Nutritional value of soy protein concentrate ground to different particle sizes and fed to pigs. Journal of Animal Sciences. 95: 827-836.

  7. Chakraborty, M.K., Patel, G.J. and Parameswaran, M. (1985). Protein Yield and Quality from Bidi Tobacco. In:  Tobacco Protein Utilization Perspectives. [Fantozzi P (ed.)] Proc. Italian National Research Council, Salsomaggiore Terme, Italy. 97-106.

  8. Cheng, F., Shu, G., Chen, L., Dai, C., Wan, H., Chen, H. and Dong, X. 2021. Ultrasound microwave assisted extraction of proteins from Moringaoleifera leaves: Comparative optimization study and LC MS analysis of the protein concentrate. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 45(6).

  9. ICAR. (2019). Technical Bulletin No. 1/2019. ICAR-Central Tobacco Research Institute: Research Contribution and Impact. Andhra Pradesh. India.

  10. Khan, L.H. and Varshney, V.K. (2015). Optimization of process conditions for isolation of leaf protein concentrate from pongamiapinnata and its proximate nutritional composition. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 8(5): 24-33.

  11. Kumar, R., Chauhan, S.K., Shinde, G., Subramanian, V., Nadanasabapathi, S. (2018). Whey proteins: A potential ingredient for food industry- A review. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 37(4): 283-290.

  12. Kung, S.D., Saunder, J.A., Tso, T.C., Vaughan, D.A., Womack, H., Staples, R.C. and Beecher, GR. (1980). Tobacco as a potential food source and smoke material, nutritional evaluation of tobacco leaf protein. Journal of Food Science. 45: 320-327.

  13. Merodio, C., Mercedes, M. and Bartolome, S. (1983). Improved separation of green and soluble leaf proteins by pH shift. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31, (5): 957-959.

  14. Morris, T.R. (1977). Leaf-protein Concentrates for Non-ruminant Farm Animals. In: Green Crop Fractionation. [Wilkins, R.J. (Ed.)], Occasional Symposium No. 9, British Grassland Society.

  15. Ngomuo, M., Stoilova, T., Feyissa, T., Kassim, N., Ndakidem, PA. (2017). The genetic diversity of leaf vegetable jute mallow (Corchorus spp.): A review. Indian Journal Agricultural Research. 51(5): 405-412.

  16. NHFS-5. (2021). India Fact Sheet. National Family Health Survey - 5 2019-21. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 

  17. Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Boreham, J., Thun, M., Heath, C. and Doll, R. (1996). Mortality from smoking worldwide. British Medical Bulletin. 52: 12-21.

  18. Prasad, V. (2007). Case Study of Tobacco Cultivation and Alternate Crops in India. WHO. Geneva.

  19. Qiaoyun, C., Xinghong, N., Zheng, T., Jin, L., Kang, S., Xuan, C., Xinghui, L. (2017). Optimization of protein extraction and decoloration conditions for tea residues. Horticultural Plant Journal. DOI: 10.1016/j.hpj.2017.06.003.

  20. Saha, J., Deka, SC. (2017). Functional properties of sonicated and non-sonicated extracted leaf protein concentrate from Diplaziumesculentum. International Journal of Food Properties. 20(5): 1051-1061.

  21. Shanker, N., Berde, N., Govindaraju, K. and Debnath, S. (2018). Efficacy of various methods of protein extraction from purslane suitable for proteome analysis. IJRAR- International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews. 5(4): 451-456.

  22. Soo, M.H., Samad, N.A., Abang Zaidel D.N., Mohd Jusoh, Y.M., Muhamad, I.I., Hashim, Z. (2021). Extraction of plant based protein from Moringa oleifera leaves using alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation method. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 89: 253-258.

  23. Suprami, Sumarto, Sidauruk, S.W., Rianti, E. (2019). Characteristics of amplang (Indonesian Traditional Snack) fortified rebon shrimp (Mysis relicta) protein concentrate. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 38(3): 247-251.

  24. Tangendja, B., Susana, I.W.R., Lowry, J.B. (1984). Leaf Protein Extraction from Tropical Plants. IPB Bogon Agriculture University. 225-232.

  25. Tripathi, N., Singh, C.J., Khan, L.H., Kumar, S., Singh, R., Singh, P. and Varshney, V.K. (2014). Analysis of nutritional factors of leaf protein concentrate (LPC) from Girardiniah eterophylla (Decne). The Open Nutraceuticals Journal. 7:1-4.

  26. United Nations Report. (2019). Estimates developed by the UN Inter- agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report.

  27. Virabalin, R., Kositsup, B. and punnapayan, H. (1993). Leaf Protein Concentrate from Water Hyacinth. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 31: 207-209

  28. WHO. (2007). WHO Technical Report Series 945. The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation. Geneva. Switzerland.

  29. World Bank Report. (2013). Helping India Combat Persistently High Rates of Malnutrition. news/feature/2013/05/13/helping-india-combat-persistently high-rates-of-malnutrition (Retrieved November 13, 2020).

Editorial Board

View all (0)