Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Parameters of Dairy Cattle

DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1637    | Article Id: DR-1637 | Page : 260-266
Citation :- Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Parameters of Dairy Cattle.Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research.2021.(40):260-266
Ahmad Nawid Mirzad, Mohammad Hussain Haidary, M. Nasim Sohail, Mohammad Nasim Sahab, Hamidullah Alizada, Amanullah Monis, Tawfeeq Mohammad Monir, H.A. Upendra nasimnasar25@yahoo.com
Address : Department of Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Balkh University, Balkh, Afghanistan. 
Submitted Date : 18-02-2021
Accepted Date : 24-05-2021


Background: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is one of the most important metabolic disease of dairy cattle which decrease milk production, dry matter intake, productivity and increase culling rate and even cause death.
Methods: In this study the epidemiological status of SARA namely age, breed, stage of lactation, lactation number, general health condition, body condition score, daily milk production, milk fat content and biochemical alteration were investigated.
Result: Out of 100 cows examined 20 were found to be positive for SARA and the mean age of dairy cows suffering from SARA was found to be 6.53 ±0.68 years. The prevalence of SARA was 70 and 30 per cent in Jersey and HF breed of cows respectively and was high in mid lactation and the lactation number ranged from 2 to 6. 65 per cent. SARA affected cows were in poor body condition score, milk production and milk fat content was significantly low (P≤ 0.05). The mean GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transferase) and AST (Asparate aminotransferase) values were significantly increased in SARA affected dairy cows. SARA seems to be a common problem in dairy cattle and it has to be considered when dealing with herd level problems like low milk fat, low milk production, poor body condition and appropriate management measures should be implemented to prevent it.


Dairy cattle Rumenocentesis Rumen-fluid pH Subacute ruminal acidosis


  1. Abdela, N. (2016). Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) and its Consequence in Dairy Cattle: A Review of Past and Recent Research at Global Prospective. Achievements in the Life Sciences. 10: 187-196. 
  2. Allen, M.S. (1997). Relationship between fermentation acid production in the rumen and the requirement for physically effective fiber. Journal of dairy science. 80(7): 1447-1462.
  3. Attia, N.E. (2016). Subacute ruminal acidosis in feedlot: incidence, clinical alterations and its sequelae. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 4(10): 513-517.
  4. Bauman, D.E. and Griinari, J.M. (2003). Nutritional regulation of milk fat synthesis. Annual Review of Nutrition. 23: 203-227. 
  5. Bauman, D.E. and Griinari, J.M. (2001). Regulation and nutritional manipulation of milk fat: low-fat milk syndrome. Livestock Production Science. 70 (1-2): 15-29.
  6. Bramley, E., Lean, I.J., Fulkerson, W.J., Stevenson, M.A., Rabiee, A.R. and Costa, N.D. (2008). The definition of acidosis in dairy herds predominantly fed on pasture and concentrates. Journal of dairy science. 91(1): 308-321.
  7. Brand, A. and Warner, M. (1996). Monitoring reproductive performance execution. Herd Health and Production Management in Dairy Practice. Wageningen Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 293-312.
  8. Britt, J.H. (1995). Relationship between postpartum nutrition, weight loss and fertility. Cattle Practice (BVCA). 3: 79-83.
  9. Dirksen, G. (1985). Der PANSENAZIDOSE-KOMPLEX - neuere Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen. Tiera¨ rztl. Prax. 13: 501-    512. Cited by Kleen et al. (2003).
  10. Duffield, T., Plaizier, J.C., Fairfield, A., Bagg, R., Vessie, G., Dick, P. and McBride, B. (2004). Comparison of techniques for measurement of rumen pH in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 87 (1): 59-66.
  11. Enemark, J.M.D. (2008). The monitoring, prevention and treatment of sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA): A review. The veterinary journal. 176: 32-43.
  12. Garrett, E.F. (1996). Subacute rumen acidosis. Large Animal Veterinarian. 51: 6-10.
  13. Garrett, E.F., Nordlund, K.V., Goodger, W.J. and Oetzel, G.R. (1997). A cross-sectional field study investigating the effect of periparturient dietary management on ruminal pH in early lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 80 (Suppl 1): 169.
  14. Garrett, E.F., Perreira, M.N., Nordlund, K.V., Armentano, L.E., Goodger, W.J. and Oetzel, G.R. (1999). Diagnostic methods for the detection of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 82: 1170-1178.
  15. Garry, F.B. (2002). Indigestion in Ruminants. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine, edt. Rd SMITH, B.P., edn 3. Mosby, St Louis and Baltimore. pp 722-747.
  16. George, N.G. (2005). Effect of Subacute Ruminal acidosis (SARA) on Ruminal lipopolysaccharide Release and on Inflammation in cattle. PhD thesis, Faculty of Graduate University of    Manitoba
  17. Goad, D.W., Goad, C.L. and Nagaraja, T.G. (1998). Ruminal microbial and fermentative changes associated with experimentally induced subacute acidosis in steers. Journal Animal Science. 76: 234-241.
  18. Gozho, G.N., Krause, D.O. and Plaizier, J.C. (2006). Rumen lipopolysaccharide and inflammation during grain adaptation and subacute ruminal acidosis in steers. Journal of dairy science. 89(11): 4404-4413.
  19. Gozho, G.N., Krause, D.O., and Plaizier, J.C. (2007). Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows. Journal of dairy science. 90(2): 856-866.
  20. Gozho, G.N., Plaizier, J.C., Krause, D.O., Kennedy, A.D. and Wittenberg, K.M. (2005). Subacute ruminal acidosis induces ruminal lipopolysaccharide endotoxin release and triggers an inflammatory response. Journal of Dairy Science. 88: 1399-1403. 
  21. Khafipour, E., Krause D.O. and Plaizier, J.C. (2009a). A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation. Journal of Dairy Science. 92: 1060-1070. 
  22. Kleen, J.L. (2004). Prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis in Deutch dairy herds- A field study. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Veterinary Medicine Hanover. 
  23. Kleen, J.L., Hooijer, G.A., Rehage, J. and Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. (2003). Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA): A review. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A. 50 (8): 406-414.
  24. Krause, M.K. and Oetzel, G.R. (2006). Understanding and preventing subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy herds: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 126: 215-236.
  25. Livesey, C.T., Metcalf, J.A. and Laven, R.A. (2003). Effect of concentrate composition and cubicle bedding on the development of hoof haemorrhages in Holstein heifers after calving. The Veterinary Record. 152: 735-739.
  26. McCann, J.C., Luan, S., Cardoso, F.C., Derakhshani, H., Khafipour, E. and Loor, J.J. (2016). Induction of subacute ruminal acidosis affects the ruminal microbiome and epithelium. Frontiers in microbiology. 701: 1-18.
  27. Mulvaney, P. (1977). Dairy cow condition scoring. Handout No. 4468. National Institute for Research in Dairying. Reading, UK.
  28. Nagaraja, T.G., Bartley, E.E., Fina, R. and Anthony, H.D. (1978). Relationship of rumen gram- negative bacteria and free endotoxin to lactic acidosis in cattle. Journal of Animals Sciences. 47: 1329-1337. 
  29. Nocek, J.E. (1997). Bovine Acidosis Implications on Laminitis. Journal of Dairy Science. 80: 1005-1028. 
  30. Nordlund, K.V. (2004). Investigation strategies for laminitis problem herds. Journal of Dairy Science. 87: 27-35.
  31. Nordlund, K.V., Garret, E.F. and Oetzel, G.R. (1995). Herd-based rumenucentesis: A clinical approach to the diagnosis of Sub acute rumen acidosis. Compend. Contin. Educat. Pract. Vet. Food. Animal. 17: 48-56.
  32. O’Grady, L., Doherty, M.L. and Mulligan, F.J. (2008). Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows. The Veterinary Journal. 176(1): 44-49.
  33. Oetzel, G.R. (2000). Clinical aspects of ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Convention of the American Association of Bovine Practitioner, Rapid City. pp 46-53. 
  34. Oetzel, G.R. (2003). Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle. Advances in Dairy Technology. 15: 307-317.
  35. Oetzel, G.R. (2005). Applied aspects of ruminal acidosis induction and prevention. Journal of Dairy Science. 88: 377-377.
  36. Oetzel, G.R., Nordlund, K.V. and Garett, E.F. (1999). Effect of ruminal pH and stage of lactation on ruminal lactate concentration in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 82: 35-39.
  37. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C. and Hinchcliff, K.W. (2000). The Veterinary Clinical Examination and Diagnosis, Veterinary Medicine. In: Edn 9, Harcourt Publishers Ltd., London. pp 153-155.
  38. Rosenberger, G. (1979). Clinical Examination of Cattle. Edn: 2nd pub. By Verlag paul parey. Berline. pp 204-212.
  39. Stone, W.C. (1999). The effect of subclinical acidosis on milk components. In: Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. pp 40-46.
  40. Suton, J.D., Hart, I.C., Broster, W.H., Elliott, R.J. and Schuller, E. (1986). Feeding frequency for lactating cows: effects on rumen fermentation and blood metabolites and hormones. British Journal of Nutrition. 56: 181-192.
  41. Tajik, J. and Nazifi, S. (2011). Diagnosis of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis: A Review. Asian Journal of Animal Science. 5(2): 80-90.
  42. Tajik, J., Nadalian, M.G., Raoofi, A., Mohammadi, G.R. and Bahonar, A.R. (2009). Prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis in some dairy herds of Khorasan Razavi province, northeast of Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 10: 28-32.
  43. Van Soest, P.J. (1994). Nutritional Ecology of the rumen 2nd ed. Comell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 
  44. Webel, D.M., Finck, B.N., Baker, D.H. and Johnson, R.W. (1997). Time course of increased plasma cytokines cortisol and urea nitrogen in pigs following intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharides. Journal of Animal Science. 75: 1514-1520.

Global Footprints