Conjugated Linoleic Acid - The Natural Trans Fat: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1634    | Article Id: DR-1634 | Page : 351-357
Citation :- Conjugated Linoleic Acid - The Natural Trans Fat: A Review.Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research.2021.(40):351-357
B. Indu, H.M. Jayaprakasha indubthayyil@gmail.com
Address : Department of Dairy Chemistry, College of Dairy Science and Technology, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Mannuthy-680 651, Kerala, India.
Submitted Date : 9-02-2021
Accepted Date : 20-07-2021


Milk has been known as nature’s most complete food for millennia, playing currently an important role in the diet of over six billion people in the world (Górska et al., 2019). They are daily consumption foodstuffs, considered as important source of energy and of a variety of bioactive substances positively associated with human health, such as proteins and peptides, oligosaccharides, lipids, minerals and vitamins. Milk fat is the costliest component and is mainly composed of triacylglycerols (~98%). The high concentration of saturated fatty acids (mainly that of palmitic, myristic and lauric acids) in the milk’s lipid fraction has generated some concern, because of their negative effects on human health, especially in relation with the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (Lordan et al., 2018). However, milk’s lipid fraction also contains mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (C18:1 cis-9), linoleic acid and certain fatty acids with trans configuration that own immense health benefits. These trans fats are naturally present in milk. Fatty acids that contain conjugated trans double bonds are considered as a separate entity and can be called as Natural Trans Fat such as conjugated linoleic acid. The review aims on highlighting the isomers of CLA in milk, factors influencing CLA content, the health benefits, presence of CLA in dairy products and the aspects in designing CLA enriched milk fat concerning nutrition and health.


​CLA enrichment CLA in dairy products Conjugated linoleic acid Health benefits Natural trans fat


  1. Avramis, C.A., Wang, H., McBride, B.W., Wright, T.C. and Hill, A.R. (2003). Physical and processing properties of milk, butter and Cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal. J. Dairy Sci. 86(8): 2568-2576.
  2. Bauman, D.E. and Lock, A.L. (2006). Conjugated linoleic acid: Biosynthesis and nutritional significance. In Advanced Dairy Chemistry Volume 2 LipidsSpringer, Boston, MA. (pp. 93-136). 
  3. Bauman, D.E., Barbano, D.M., Dwyer, D.A. and Griinari, J.M. (2000). Production of butter with enhanced conjugated linoleic acid for use in biomedical studies with animal models. Journal of Dairy Science. 83(11): 2422-2425.
  4. Bawa, S. (2003). An update on the beneficial role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in modulating human health: Mechanisms of action-A review. Polish J. Food Nutr. Sci. 12(3): 3-13.
  5. Belury, M.A. and Vanden Heuvel, J.P. (1999). Modulation of diabetes by conjugated linoleic acid. Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research. 1: 404-411.
  6. Bruen, R., Fitzsimons, S. and Belton, O. (2017). Atheroprotective effects of conjugated linoleic acid. Br. J. Clin Pharmaco. 83(1): 46-53.
  7. Cieœlak, A., El-Sherbiny, M., Szczechowiak, J., Kowalczyk, D., Pers- Kamczyc, E., Bryszak, M. and Szumacher-Strabel, M. (2015). Rapeseed and fish oil mixtures supplied at low dose can modulate milk fatty acid composition without affecting rumen fermentation and productive parameters in dairy cows. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 33(4): 357-372.
  8. Dave, R.I., Ramaswamy, N. and Baer, R.J. (2002). Changes in fatty acid compo­sition during yogurt processing and their effects on yogurt and probiotic bacteria in milk procured from cows fed different diets. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 57(3): 197-202.
  9. Dhaka, V., Gulia, N., Ahlawat, K.S. and Khatkar, B.S. (2011). Trans fats-sources, health risks and alternative approach-A review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 48(5): 534-541.
  10. Dhiman, T.R., Anand, G.R., Satter, L.D. and Pariza, M.W. (1999). Conjugated Linoleic Acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 2146-2156.
  11. Dhiman, T.R., Satter, L.D., Pariza, M.W., Galli, M.P., Albright, K. and Tolosa, M.X. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered diets rich in linoleic and linolenic acid. J. Dairy Sci. 83(5): 1016-1027.
  12. Florence, A.C.R., Beal, C., Silva, R.C., Bogsan, C.S.B., Pilleggi, A. and Gioielli, L.A. (2012). Fatty acid profile, trans- octadecenoic, alpha-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks. Food Chem. 135(4): 2207- 2214.
  13. Galkina, Elena and Klaus Ley. (2009). Immune and inflammatory mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 27.
  14. Gang, E.J., Bosnakovski, D., Simsek, T., To, K. and Perlingeiro, R.C. (2008). Pax3 activation promotes the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells toward the myogenic lineage. Exp. Cell Res. 314(8): 1721-1733.
  15. Górska-Warsewicz, H., Rejman, K., Laskowski, W. and Czeczotko, M. (2019). Milk and dairy products and their nutritional contribution to the average polish diet. Nutrients. 11(8): 1771. 
  16. Griinari, J.M. and Bauman, D.E. (1999). Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid and its incorporation into meat and milk in ruminants. Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research. (1): 180-200.
  17. Grossman, M.R. (2015). FDA issues order to ban artificial trans-fat by 2018. Eur. Food and Feed L. Rev. 10, 317.
  18. Gutiérrez, (2016). Conjugated linoleic acid in milk and fermented milks: Variation and effects of the technological processes. Vitae. 23 (2): 134-145.
  19. HA, Y.L., Grimm, N.K. and Pariza, M.W. (1987). Anticarcinogens from fried ground beef: Heat altered derivatives of linoleic acid. Carcinogenesis. 8: 1881-1887.
  20. Harfoot, C.G. and Hazlewood, G.P. (1997). Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In: The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem [Ed. Hobson, P.N. and C.S. Stewar]. Chapman and Hall. London. 382-426.
  21. Kelly, M.L. Kolver, E.S., Bauman, D.E., Van Amburgh, M.E and Muller, L.D. (1998). Effect of Intake of Pasture on Concentrations of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk of Lactating Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81: 1630-1636.
  22. Kennedy, A., Martinez, K., Schmidt, S., Mandrup, S., Lapoint, K. and Mcintosh, M. (2010). Anti besity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid. J. Nutr. Biochem. 21(3): 171-179.
  23. Khanak, R.C., Dhiman,T.R., Ure, A.L., Brennand, C.P., Boman, R.L. and Mcmahon, D.J. (2005). Consumer acceptability of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched milk and cheddar cheese from cows grazing on pasture. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 1837-1847.
  24. Lordan, R., Tsoupras, A., Mitra, B. and Zabetakis, I. (2018). Dairy fats and cardiovascular disease: Do we really need to be concerned. Foods. 7(3): 29.
  25. NRC. (1996). Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  26. Page, I.H., Stare, F.J., Corcoran, A.C., Pollack, H. and Wilkinson Jr, C.F. (1957). Atherosclerosis and the fat content of the diet. Circulation. 16(2): 163-178.
  27. Pariza, M.W. and Hargraves, W.A.A. (1985). A beef-derived mutagenesis modulator inhibits initiation of mouse epidermal tumours by 7,12 - dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Carcinogenesis. 6: 591-593.
  28. Park, Y., Storkson, J., Albright, K., Liu, W. and Pariza, M. (1999). Evidence that trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid induces body composition changes in mice. Lipids. 34: 235-241.
  29. Pendleton, and Susan C. (1999). Man’s most important food is fat: The use of persuasive techniques in Procter and Gamble’s public relations campaign to introduce Crisco. Public Relations Quarterly. 44(6): 1911-1913.
  30. Poirier, H., Rouault, C., Clement, L., Niot, I., Monnot, M.C., Guerre- Millo, M. and Besnard, P. (2005). Hyperinsulinaemia triggered by dietary conjugated linoleic acid is associated with a decrease in leptin and adiponectin plasma levels and pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia in the mouse. Diabetologia, 48(6): 1059-1065.
  31. Prandini, A., Sigolo, S., Tansini, G., Brogna, N. and Piva, G. (2007). Different level of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products from Italy. J. Food Compos. Anal. 20(6): 472-479.
  32. Roche, H.M., Noone, E., Nugent, A. and Gibney, M.J. (2001). Prevention of Cancer. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr. 45: 135- 144.
  33. Stanton, C., Lawless, F., Kjellmer, G. and Murphy, J. (1997). Dietary influences on bovine milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid content. J. Food Sci. 62: 1083-1086.
  34. Tyagi, A.K., Kewalramani, N., Kaur, H., Singhal, K.K., Kaul, G., Kanawjia, S.K. and Dhiman, T.R. (2004). Dietary manipulation to enhance linoleic acid (CLA) in buffalo milk and milk products.
  35. Wang, Y.W. and Jones, P.J. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid and obesity control: Efficacy and mechanisms. Int J. Obes. 28(8): 941-955.
  36. Yadav, H., Jain, S. and Sinha, P.R. (2007). Production of free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casein during fermentation and storage. Int. Dairy J. 17(8): 1006- 1010.

Global Footprints