Loading...

Enhancement of bioavailable iron and calcium contents in fermented linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) beverages

DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1397    | Article Id: DR-1397 | Page : 331-334
Citation :- Enhancement of bioavailable iron and calcium contents in fermented linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) beverages.Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research.2018.(37):331-334
V.C. Suvarna, N. Nivetha, A.J. Shraddha and R.U. Abhishek suvarnavc@gmail.com
Address : Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, Bengaluru-560 065, Karnataka, India.
Submitted Date : 17-09-2018
Accepted Date : 10-11-2018

Abstract

Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is considered as a nutritious food because of exceptionally high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content, dietary fiber, quality protein and phytoestrogens. It is rich in minerals (100 g of seeds contain 350-431 mg of magnesium and 236- 250 mg of calcium) and has very low amount of sodium. It also contains anti-nutritional factors, especially phytic acid that interferes with the bioavailability of nutrients like calcium and iron. Fermentation increases the nutritional quality of foods by reducing anti-nutritional factors. Probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus mesentericus and lactic acid bacterial isolate LAB-3 were used to produce fermented linseed beverage and the quantity of phytic acid, bioavailability of iron and calcium were estimated. Bioavailability of iron and calcium increased by fermentation. The highest bioavailable iron and calcium were observed in L. acidophilus fermentation (4.40 mg and 250.41 mg /100 g seeds, respectively) followed by LAB-3 and Bacillus mesentericus compared to raw seeds that contain 0.89 mg of iron and 125 mg of calcium /100g of seeds. Phytic acid content was high in raw seeds (1392 mg /100 g seeds) and fermentation with L. acidophilus recorded 856 mg phytic acid /100 g seeds resulting in 38.51 % reduction. LAB-3 and B. mesentericus showed approximately 32 % reduction in phytic acid content. The reduction in phytic acid content is significantly high. Fermentation using probiotic bacteria enhanced the bioavailability of iron and calcium by reducing phytic acid. Hence, this study leads to a conclusion that, microbial intervention can be adopted to reduce the anti-nutritional factors and enhance the nutritional quality of linseed.

Keywords

Antinutritional factor Bioavailability Calcium Fermentation Iron Linseed Phytic acid.

References

  1. Akande, K.E., Doma, U.D., Agu, H.O. and Adamu, H.M. (2010). Major antinutrients found in plant protein sources: their effect on nutrition. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9:827-832.
  2. Archana, S., Sharma, H.R. and Ranjana, V. (2009). Development and nutritional evaluation of linseed supplemented amaranth and sesame based sweet balls. Journal of Dairying, Foods and Home Sciences, 28:49-53.
  3. Bharath, N., Chinnipreetam, V., Reddy, V.R. and Panda, A.K. (2017). Effect of Omega-3 fatty acids enrichment on performance and carcass traits of broiler chicken. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 51:489-494.
  4. Chauhan, M.P., Sadhna, S. and Kumar, S.A. (2009). Post harvest uses of linseed. Journal of Human Ecology, 28:217-219.
  5. De Man, J.C., Rogosa, M. and Sharpe, E.M. (1960). A medium for the cultivation of Lactobacilli. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 23:130-135.
  6. Didar, Z. (2011). Effect of sour dough on phytic acid content and quality of Iranian sangak bread. Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, 1:1-5.
  7. Feil, B. (2001), Phytic acid. Journal of New Seeds, 3:1-35.
  8. Ganorkar, P.M. and Jain, R.K. (2013). Flaxseed - a nutritional punch. International Food Research Journal, 20:519- 525. 
  9. Gao, Y., Shang, C., Maroof, M.A.S., Biyashev, R.M., Grabau, E.A., Kwanyuen, P., Burton, J.W. and Buss, G.R. (2007). A modified colorimetric method for phytic acid analysis in soybean. Crop Science, 47:1797-1803.
  10. Giada, M.L.R. (2010). Food applications for flaxseed and its components: products and processing. Recent Patents in Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, 2:181-186.
  11. Haros, M., Bielecka, M., Honke, J. and Sanz, Y. (2008). Phytate degrading activity in lactic acid bacteria. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Science, 58: 33-40.
  12. Horwitz, W. and Latimer Jr. G.W. (2005). Animal feeds, Minerals. In: Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, 18th edition: Maryland, USA. pp. 60-71.
  13. Kajla, P., Sharma, A. and Devaraj, S. (2014). Flaxseed - a potential functional food source. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52:1-15.
  14. Latta, M. and Eskin, M. (1980). A Simple and Rapid Colorimetric Determination of Phytate Determination. Jouranl of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 28:1313–1315.
  15. Luten, J., Crews, H., Flynn, A., Van Dael, P., Kastenmayer, P., Hurrel, R., Deelstra, H., Shen, L., Fairweather-tait, S., Hickson, K., Farre, R., Schlemmer, U. and Frhlich, W. (1996). Interlaboratory trial on the determination of the in vitro iron dialysability from food. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 72:415-424.
  16. Mukherjee, R., Chakraborty, R. and Dutta, A. (2016). Role of fermentation in improving nutritional quality of soybean meal - A review. Asia Australian Journal of Animal Science, 29:1523-1529.
  17. Nasri, H., Baradaran, A., Shirzad, H. and Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2014). New concepts in nutraceuticals as alternative for pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5:1487-1499.
  18. Nivetha, N., Suvarna, V. C. and Shraddha, A.J. (2017). Standardization and protocol preparation of linseed beverage (fermented) using lactic acid bacteria and yeast. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6:20-31.
  19. Oomah, B. D., Giuseppe, M. and Kenaschuk, E.O. (1996). Kenaschuk, dehulling characteristics of flaxseed. Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-    Technology, 29:245-250.
  20. Osman, M.A. (2011). Effect of traditional fermentation process on the nutrient and antinutrient contents of pearl millet during preparation of Lohoh. Journal of Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 10:1-6.
  21. Rao, N.A.B. and Prabhavathi, T. (1978). An in vitro method for predicting the bioavailability of iron from foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 31:169-175.
  22. Rubilar, M., Gutiérrez, C., Verdugo, M., Shene, C. and Sineiro, J. (2010). Flaxseed as a source of functional ingredients. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 10:373-377.
  23. Sood, S.K., Kaur, J. and Vadhera, S. (2000). Reducing antinutritional factors in rapeseed meal and its isolates. Journal of Dairying Foods and Home Sciences, 19:159-165.
  24. Tang, A.L., Wilcox, G., Walker, K.Z., Nagandra, P.S., Ashton, J.F. and Stojanovska, L. (2010). Phytase activity from Lactobacillus spp. in calcium fortified soymilk. Journal of Food Science, 75:373-376.
  25. Titok, V.V., Vakula, S.I., Leontiev, V.N. and Lugin, V.G. (2015). Analysis of structural and qualitative features of phytin deposition in ripe flax seeds. Cytology and Genetics, 49:40-44.
  26. Vaintraub, I.A. and Lapteva, N.A. (1988). Colorimetric determination of phytate in unpurified extracts of seeds and the products of their processing. Analytical Biochemistry, 175:227-230.

Global Footprints