Quality changes in milk adulterated with detergent, urea, ammonium sulphate and neutralizers

DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.v34i4.6879    | Article Id: DR-1015 | Page : 285-289
Citation :- Quality changes in milk adulterated with detergent, urea, ammoniumsulphate and neutralizers .Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research.2015.(34):285-289

Rajkumar Ahirwar*, P.T. Harilal, K.A. Srihari and M.C. Pandey 

Address :

Freeze Drying and Animal Products Technology Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddharthanagar-570011, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Submitted Date : 28-04-2015
Accepted Date : 10-12-2015


Quality changes in milk adulterated with different concentrations of adulterants like urea, detergent, ammonium sulphate and neutralizers were determined using physico-chemical and microbiological quality characteristics. Addition of detergents at 0.1 to 0.9% concentrations showed an increase in the refractive index (RI). Specific gravity increased with incremental addition of detergent. Same trend was observed with total solids, total ash and pH; whereas, moisture, fat and lactose contents decreased. Microbial growth in the adulterated milk did not show much variation in the samples. 


Ammonium sulphate Detergent Microbial analysis Neutralizer Urea.


  1. Amit Kumar, Vivek Sharma, Dharshan Lal and V.Unnikrishna. (2010). Test for neutralizer in milk:evaluation of the rosalic acid test for checking its suitability to detect neutralizer in milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 63:111-117.
  2. AOAC. (2000). Official methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C USA. 
  3. APHA. (1992). Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 2nd edn. M.L. Speck, American Public Health Association., Washington, DC.
  4. BS ISO 17792:2006. United Kingdom, British Standards Institution.2008. Milk, milk products mesophilic starter cultures. Enumeration of citrate-fermenting lactic acid bacteria. Colony-count technique at 25°C. British Standards., 22pp.
  5. BIS. (1961). Indian Standard Methods of Test for Dairy Industry, IS: 1479 (part II). http://www.nddb.org. Accessed on 21 Jan 2015
  6. BSI. (1979). Method for Determination of Fat by the Gerber Method, IS: 1224, Bureau of Indian Standards., New-Delhi
  7. BSI. (1990). Determination of the nitrogen content of liquid milk. In: Methods for Chemical Analysis of Liquid Milk and Cream. BSI.1741, British Standards Institution, London, U.K.
  8. Barbano D. M., Wojciechowski, K. L. and Lynch, J. M. (2010). Effect of preservatives on the accuracy of mid-infrared milk component testing. J. Dairy Sci., 93 : 6000-6011
  9. Chagas L. M., Bass J. J., Blache D., Burke C. R., Kay J. K., Lindsay D. R. and Webb R. (2007). Invited review: New perspectives on the roles of nutrition and metabolic priorities in the sub fertility of high-producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 90 :4022-4032. 
  10. De Souza G. C. S., Da Silva P. A. B., Leotério D. M. D. S., Paim A. P. S. and Lavorante, A. F. (2014). A multicommuted flow system for fast screening/sequential spectrophotometric determination of dichromate, salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and starch in milk samples. Food Control., 46 :127-135.
  11. Janiis Cerbulis, Philipe. Pffzfer and Harold M. Farrell, JR. (1978). Reaction of lactose with urea. Carbohy. Res., 65:311-313
  12. Kartheek M., Smith A. A., Muthu A. K. and Manavalan, R. (2011). Determination of adulterants in food: A review. J. Chem. Pharma Res., 3 :629-36.
  13. Mohit Kamthania, Jyoti Saxena, Komal Saxena, D.K. Sharma. (2014). Milk Adulteration: Methods of Detection &Remedial Measures. Int. J. Engg. and Technical Res., 1:2321-0869
  14. Omkar Kumar and T.Rai. (2010). Nutritional value of milk and micronutrient fortification. Indian Food Industry., 29 :47-57.
  15. Sadat A., Mustajab P. and Khan, I. A. (2006). Determining the adulteration of natural milk with synthetic milk using ac conductance measurement. J. Food Engg., 77 :472-477.
  16. Trout ES, Hunt MC, Johnson DE, Claus JR, Kastner CL, Kropf DH. (1992). Characteristics in low-fat ground beef containing texture modifying ingredients. J. Food Sci., 57 :19–24 

Global Footprints