Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, volume 42 issue 2 (june 2023) : 161-167

Influence of Processed Cassava Peel-leaf Blend as Replacement for Maize on Growth Performance and Serum Parameters of Growing Pigs

G.A. Williams1,*, O.S. Akinola2, T.M. Adeleye3, O.T. Irekhore4, A.O. Lala5, A.O. Oso6, O.K. Williams6
1Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Lagos State University Epe Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.
2Department of Animal Production and Health, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta PMB 2240, Nigeria.
3Department of Microbiology, College of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta PMB 2240, Nigeria.
4Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta PMB 2240, Nigeria.
5Livestock Production Research Programme, Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
6Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta PMB 2240, Nigeria.
Cite article:- Williams G.A., Akinola O.S., Adeleye T.M., Irekhore O.T., Lala A.O., Oso A.O., Williams O.K. (2023). Influence of Processed Cassava Peel-leaf Blend as Replacement for Maize on Growth Performance and Serum Parameters of Growing Pigs . Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 42(2): 161-167. doi: 10.18805/ajdfr.DRF-278.
Background: The use of alternative feedstuff like cassava peel and leaf in pig production is of great concern due to reduced nutrient availability caused by high fibre and antinutritional constituent. The current study investigated the effect of dietary inclusion of differently processed cassava peel-leaf blend (CPLB) on growth and blood parameters of growing pigs.

Methods: CPLB (Cassava peel: Cassava leaf; 5:1) was included in pigs diet in a feeding trial for 16 wks. The CPLB replaced maize at 100%. 24 pigs of mean weight range (20-22 kg) were assigned on a weight equalization basis to four dietary treatments having six replicates with one pig per replicate. A standard corn soya-based diet (control), Unfermented CPLB (UCPLB), water fermented CPLB (WCPLB) and microbial fermented CPLB (MCPLB) using Aspergillus tamarii as inoculum was formulated. Growth response was measured and serum analysis was carried out at the end of the 8th and 16th week.

Result: There was no significant (p>0.05) effect on growth performance at the end of the 8th and 16th weeks. Dietary inclusion of MCPLB resulted in higher (p<0.05) cholesterol (144.30 mmol/L) in pigs than those fed control diet (97.20 mm/L) at the end of 8th week. Pigs fed diet containing UCPLB had reduced (p<0.05) serum creatinine (0.58 mg/dl) at the end of 16th week. In conclusion, CPLB based diet irrespective of processing method did not significantly affect growth performance and without negative effect on blood serum parameters.
Pig production stands as a means of mitigating animal protein shortage in Africa and this is due to their fast growth, short generation interval, high prolificacy, efficient nutrient conversion into high quality meat and ability to convert agro waste into nutritious meat (Adesehinwa et al., 1998). Pigs belongs to the category of monogastric animals which constitute the largest consumer of commercial livestock feeds in Africa (FAO, 2015). Commercial pig production employs the use of concentrate feeding (maize-soybean based) with increasing cost due to poor local production below the demands by man, animals and other channels of usage (Afolayan, 2010). Therefore there is need to find ways of utilizing available agro-industrial wastes in formulating swine diets to produce meat at frugal rate.
One of such available agro industrial by-products and crop residues that could be explored in the nutrition of pigs are cassava peels and leaves. Cassava peels constitute about 10-13% of tuber weight (Oyebimpe et al., 2006) with a protein content of approximately 46 to 55 g/kg (Morgan and Choct, 2016). Cassava peel contains crude protein (5.98%), ether extract (0.65%), ash (7.0%), nitrogen-free extract (65.87%) and metabolisable energy of 2044.8 kcal/kg (Salami 2000). Cassava leaf is high in protein (16.6% to 39.9%), a good source of vitamin B, C and carotenes (Dada and Oworu, 2010).
The limitation to the use of these by-products in monogastric nutrition is due to the presence of high fibre fractions and its constituent poor amino acid profile (Ngudi et al., 2003; Cardoso et al., 2005). Thus, to adequately access the rich nutritive potential of these cassava products in swine nutrition, there is a need to engage various processing strategies or methods capable of increasing its utilisation (Motarjemi, 2000). Blood constituents are indicators of the composition of ingested nutrients (Animashahun et al., 2006). In addition, the study of blood characteristics can provide useful information for diagnostic and management purpose because blood serves as an important index of physiological, pathological and nutritional status of an animal (Oleforuh-Okoleh et al., 2015). Therefore, the current study seeks to investigate the effect of processed cassava peel-leaf blends on growth performance and serum parameters of growing pigs.
The experiment was executed in accordance with the approved guidelines for Animal Research by Nigeria Institute of Animal Science in Nigeria (NIAS).
Experimental site
The experiment was carried out at the piggery unit of the Directorate of University Farms, (DUFARMS) Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Alabata, Ogun State, Nigeria from March 2019 to July 2019. The site is situated in the derived savanna zone of Southwestern Nigeria on Latitude 7°9'39N and 3°20'54E and 76 m above sea level. The mean annual rainfall is 1040 mm and occurs from March to October, the temperature average is 34°C throughout the year.
Processing of test ingredients
Cassava peel meal (CPM) and cassava leaf meal (CLM)
Dried cassava peels were obtained from the cassava processing plant in Igbo-ora, Oyo state, Nigeria. The dried peels were subsequently hammer milled (2 mm sieve) to yield cassava peel meal (CPM) and stored in bags. Fresh cassava leaves without petioles were manually plucked from an established cassava farm (Odeda, Ogun State, Nigeria). The leaves were evenly spread on the concrete floor and sun-dried for 2-3 days until the dried leaves became crispy while still retaining the greenish colouration. The dried crispy leaves were milled (2 mm sieve) to yield cassava leaf meal (CLM) which was stored in plastic bags under room temperature.
Unfermented cassava peel-leaf blend (UCPLB)
A blend of cassava peel meal (CPM) and cassava leaf meal (CLM) was prepared using the Pearson Square method according to Adeyemi et al., (2014) by mixing at a ratio of  5: 1 (5 parts CPM: 1 part CLM) to form an unfermented cassava peel-leaf blend (UCPLB) with a protein content of 8.83%. Crude protein contribution from individual components in the mix is 81.26% and 18.74% from CPM and CLM respectively.

Water fermented cassava peel-leaf blend (WCPLB)
Prepared by mixing dried CPLB (5:1) with water (in ratio 1:1, kg: Lt) in plastic drums. The blend was mixed thoroughly to ensure all portions of the blend come in contact with water. After mixing, the wet blend was placed in black polythene bags and tied properly to create an anaerobic environment within the bags. The bags were left for 7 days to ensure proper fermentation of the contents. On the seventh day, the bags were opened and the ingredients were sundried and stored before diet formulation.
Microbial (Aspergillus tamarii) fermented cassava peel-leaf blend (MCPLB)
Pure strains of Aspergillus tamarii obtained from the Culture Collection Unit of the Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta was used as inoculums in this processing method. Spores of Aspergillus tamarii used for fermentation of the CPLB was prepared by following standard protocols described by Murray et al., (2003). Spore suspension (inoculum) of Aspergillus tamarii was prepared by washing spores from Petri dishes into clean water at an inoculum size of 10.5 x 108 spores/g of CPLB. The wet blend was mixed properly and placed into black polythene bags which were tied properly to create an anaerobic environment within the bags. The bags were stored and left for 7 days to ensure proper fermentation of the contents. On the seventh day, the bags were opened and the ingredients were sundried and stored before diet formulation.
Chemical composition of test ingredients
Proximate composition of samples from CPM, CLM, UCPLB, WCPLB and MCPLB was determined using standard method by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) according to Nochera and Ragone (2016) and fibre fractions were carried out according to the standard method by McCleary (2007) respectively. All analysis done was on a dry matter basis. NDF (assayed without a heat-stable amylase and expressed inclusive of residual ash), ADF (expressed inclusive of residual ash) and Lignin (determined by solubilisation of cellulose with sulphuric acid) and crude protein (total nitrogen x 6.25). Gross energy was estimated using the adiabatic bomb calorimeter (Model 1261; Parr Instrument Co., Moline, IL, USA) while digestible energy was calculated according to Adeola (2001). The cyanogenic glycosides of the samples were done using the method described by Vetter (2000).
Experimental animal, design and dietary treatments
Twenty four (24) crossbred (Large white x Landrace) male pigs (15 wks old) with average weight (20-22 kg) purchased from reputable pig farm at Iperu Remo, Ogun State were randomly assigned on a weight equalization basis to four dietary treatments. Pigs were housed individually in 24 pens (0.5 m x 0.25 x 0.3 m). Six pens were assigned to each treatment. A standard soybean-maize based diet (control; Diet 1) was formulated following the National Research Council (NRC) requirement for growing pigs according to Nyachoti et al., (2005). Three additional experimental diets were formulated such that UCPLB (Diet 2), WCPLB (Diet 3) and MCPLB (Diet 4) replaced maize (weight for weight) in the control diet (Table 1). Pigs in each treatment group were fed with their respective experimental diets. Feed was offered to the animals during the trial which lasted for 16 weeks based on the NRC recommended intake partitioned for each body weight range. Experimental diets were fed twice daily (8:00 and 18:00 hr) while clean water was supplied ad-libitum.

Table 1: Gross composition of experimental diet.

Growth performance
The initial body weight of the pigs were taken and subsequent weight per pen was measured weekly, while the gain in weight was calculated. Daily feed intake was also measured as the diûerence between the feed offered and leftovers, while feed conversion ratio (FCR) was also calculated as Feed consumed/Weight gain.
Blood collection
Blood samples were collected from 3 randomly selected pigs per treatment at the end of 8th and 16th week of the study. This was done through the culinary vein using disposable syringes with 20 x 100 mm metallic needles. 2.5 ml blood was collected from each pig; it was collected in plain bottles (without EDTA) for serum parameters. Blood samples were centrifuged (1200 rpm for 15 min) for separation of plasma. Aliquots of plasma was taken and frozen at -20°C until further analysis.
Serum parameters
The total serum protein, albumin and globulin were determined using bromocresol purple method (Varley et al., 1980), serum creatinine according to Bonsness and Taussky (1945). Serum enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) were analysed using the commercial kits (Qualigens India. Pvt. Ltd., Catalogue number 72201-04). The serum cholesterol was estimated using the enzymatic colorimetric methods (according to the manufacturer’s manual) using Randox ® diagnostic cholesterol kit.
Statistical analysis
All data obtained were subjected to a One-way analysis of Variance using Statistical Analysis System Software (SAS) and mean separation was done using Tukey test of SAS as described by Ramatsoma et al., (2015) while significant differences were considered at p<0.05.
Chemical composition of test ingredients
Table 2 shows the nutrient composition, fibre fraction, gross energy and cyanide content of test ingredients.

Table 2: Chemical composition of test ingredients.

Growth performance
The performance of growing pigs is shown in (Table 3). There is no significant (p>0.05) effect of processed CPLB inclusion on all performance indices measured at the end of 8th and 16th weeks. This is in concordance with the report of Irekhore et al., (2015) who observed no significant effect of dietary inclusion of cassava peel as replacement for maize on performance indices of growing pigs. Ly et al., (2010) also reported no significant effect of dried and ensiled cassava leaf in the diet of crossbred pigs on final body weight, average daily gain and FCR. However, on the contrary, Hong et al., (2016) observed significantly reduced feed intake with the inclusion of fermented cassava tuber wastes in the diet of crossbred pigs. Fatufe et al., (2007) also reported depressed feed intake when cassava root peel was used in the diets of pigs. These discrepancies can be linked to the differences in the processing of the cassava by-product, age and size of the animal used. The findings of Adeyemi et al., (2014) with no difference in the performance of rabbits fed 50% fermented cassava peel and leaf meal as a replacement for maize corroborates the result of the present study. In all, the similar weight gain of pigs fed diet containing CPLB compared with the control diet as obtained in this study indicates that CPLB based diets were able to support as much growth as the maize-based diet.

Table 3: Performance of growing pigs fed a diet containing differently processed cassava peel-leaf blend.

Serum parameters
Serum parameters of growing pigs is shown in (Table 4). At the end of 8 weeks, the result shows significant (p<0.05) effect of cassava peel-leaf blend inclusion on serum cholesterol of pigs. Growing pigs fed diet containing MCPLB had higher (p<0.05) cholesterol content compared to those fed control diet but similar to those fed diet containing UCPLB and WCPLB. Increased serum cholesterol obtained for growing pigs fed cassava based diet could be as a result of the dietary oil constituent. Other serum parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected. This agrees with the report of Unigwe et al., (2016) who reported no significant effect of fermented cassava peel inclusion in diets of growing pigs in respect of total protein, globulin, albumin and creatinine.

Table 4: Serum parameters of growing pigs fed diet containing differently processed cassava peel-leaf blend.

At the end of 16th week, there was significant (p<0.05) difference in serum creatinine of pigs fed diet containing cassava peel-leaf blends. This is similar to the report of Midau et al., (2011) who reported significant difference on serum creatinine of broiler chicken fed graded levels of enzyme (maxigrain) supplemented cassava peel meal (CPM) based diets. Pigs fed diet containing UCPLB had reduced (p<0.05) serum creatinine content compared to those fed diet containing MCPLB but similar to those fed control diet and diet containing WCPLB. However, the serum creatinine values across treatment fell below the normal range which indicates no muscular wastage which might have been possibly caused by inadequacy of protein in pigs because creatinine is an indirect measure of protein utilization (Rafiu et al., 2013). The other serum parameters determined were not significantly (p>0.05) affected.
The inclusion of cassava peel-leaf blends as replacement for maize in the diet of pigs irrespective of the subjected processing methods did not adversely affect performance and serum parameters of pigs. Therefore in spite of the high fiber content of the cassava peel-leaf based diets, the processed cassava peel-leaf blends can adequately replace maize in the diet of pigs.
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

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