Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research

  • Chief EditorHarjinder Singh

  • Print ISSN 0971-4456

  • Online ISSN 0976-0563

  • NAAS Rating 5.75

  • SJR Title Accepted

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus

Composition and medicinal properties of camel milk: A Review

Alok Kumar Yadav*, Rakesh Kumar, Lakshmi Priyadarshini1and Jitendra Singh
  • Email
1Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Inst., Karnal-132 001, Haryana.
Cite article:- Yadav* Kumar Alok, Kumar Rakesh, Singh Jitendra Priyadarshini1and Lakshmi (2023). Composition and medicinal properties of camel milk: A Review. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 34(2): 83-91. doi: 10.5958/0976-0563.2015.00018.4.
Many research findings proved that camel milk is closer to human milk than any other milk. Camel milk is different from other ruminant milk, having low cholesterol, low sugar, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium), high vitamin C. Camel milk is unique from other ruminant’s milk in terms of composition as well as claimed health effects. Camel milk has potential therapeutic characteristics, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic and anti-carcinogenic. It is often easily digested by lactose-intolerant individuals. On the other hand, camel milk also has ability to reduce the elevated level of bilirubin, globulin and granulocytes. Camel milk failed to show any effect towards improving the level of hemoglobin and leukocytes, and decreasing the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Camel milk proteins contained satisfactory balance of essential amino acids. It contains disease-fighting immunoglobulin’s which are small in size, allowing penetration of antigens and boosting the effectiveness of the immune system. This review focused on the medicinal properties of camel milk which will be more useful to generate value added product.
  1. Abu-Lehiya, I.H. (1987). Composition of camel milk. Milchwissenschaf 42: 368-371.
  2. Agarwal, R.P., S.C. Swami, D.K. Kothari, M.S. Sahani, F.C. Tuteja, and S.K. Ghouri (2002). Camel milk as an alternative therapy in Type 1 Diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Endocrinology/Metabolism: diabetes mellitus, 28: 25-27.
  3. Agrawal, R.P., D.K. Kochar, M.S. Sahani., F.C. Tuteja. and S.K. Ghrui (2004). Hypoglycaemic activity ofcamel milk in streptozotocin induced diabeticrats. Int. J. Diab. Dev. Count: 24:47-49.
  4. Alwan, A.A. and A.H. Farhuni (2000). The effect of camel milk on Mycobacterium tuberculosis in man. In: Proc. 2nd Intl.Camelid Conf. Agro-economics of Camelid Farming. Almaty, September, p.100.
  5. Arrowal, R.P., R. Beniwal, D.K. Kochar, F.C. Tuteja, S.K. Ghorui, M.S. Sahani and S. Sharma (2005). Camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy improves long-term glycaemia control and reduction in doses of insulin in patients with type-1 diabetes a 1 year randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 68:17
  6. BAHS (2012). Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics, http//
  7. Beg, O.U., V.B. Lindststrom, Z.H. Zaidi & and H. Jornvall (1986). Characterisation of camel milk protein rich proline identifies a new beta casein fragment. Regulatory Peptide., 15: 55-62.
  8. Breitling, L. (2002). Insulin and antidiabetic activity of camel milk. J.Camel Prac. and Res. 9(1): 43-45.
  9. Deuraseh, N. (2005). The urine of camels. Treatment of diseases in AL-Tibb Al-Nabawi. Int. Med. J., 4 (1): 25-28.
  10. El-Agamy, S.I., R. Ruppanner, A. Ismail, C.P. Champagne and R.J. Assaf (1992). Antibacterial and Antiviral activity of camel milk protective proteins. J. Dairy Res., 59: 169-175.
  11. El-Agamy, E.I. (2000). Specific immunoglobulins to human rota virus in camel colostrum and milk. In: Proc. 2nd Intl.Camelid Conf. Agro-economics of Camelid Farming. Almaty, September, p.98.
  12. Farah, Z. (1996). Camel Milk. Properties and Products. SKAT. St. Gallen, Switzerland.
  13. Gorakh, M.D., D.C. Sena, V.K. Jain, and M.S. Sahani (2000).Therapeutic utility of camel milk as nutritional supplement against multiple drug resistant patients. In: Proc. 2nd Intl.Camelid Conf. Agro-economics of Camelid Farming. Almaty, September, p.99.
  14. Guakhar, K. and F. Bernard (2004). A better knowledge of milk quality parameters: A preliminary step for improving the camel milk market opportunity in a transition economy- the case of Kazakhstan. Saving the Camel and Peoples’ Livelihoods Building a Multi stockholder Platform for the Conservation of the Camelin Rajasthan, International conference, 23-25, Sadri, Rajasthan, India. pp. 28-36.
  15. Hamers, R. (1998). Immunology of camels and llamas. In: Handbook of Veterinary Immunology. Eds: PP. Pastoret, P. Griebel. and A. Gaevarts. Academic Press, UK. pp 421-437.
  16. Hanna, J. (2001). Over the hump. In: Jack Hanna’s Animal Adventures. TV series (USA).
  17. Hansen, M.A., G. Fernandes and R.A. Good (1982). Nutrition and Immunity: The influence of diet on autoimmunity and the role of zinc in the immune response. Ann. Rev. Nutri., 2: 151-157.
  18. Harbans, S. (1966). Domestic Animals. National Book Trust. New Delhi. P.89.
  19. Hoelzer, W., S. Muyldermans and U. Wernery (1998). A note on camel IgG antibodies. J. Camel Prac. Res., 5:187-188.
  20. Ilse, K.R. (2004). The camel in Rajasthan: Agricultural diversity under threat. Saving the Camel and Peoples’ Livelihoods Building a Multi stockholder Platform for the Conservation of the Camel in Rajasthan, International conference, 23-25 November, Sadri, Rajasthan, India. pp.6-18.
  21. Kappeler, S. (1998). Compositional and structural analysis of camel milk proteins with emphasis on protective proteins. Ph.D. Diss. ETH No. 12947, Zurich. 12
  22. Khan, K.U. and T.C. Appana (1965). Evaluation of biological value of camel milk proteins. J. Nutr. and Diet., 2: 209–212.
  23. Kiselev, S.L. (1998). Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse tag-7 gene encoding a novel cytokine. J. Biol.Chem., 273:18633-18639.
  24. Koehler-Rollefson, I., P. Mundy and E. Mathias (2001). A Field Manual of Camel Diseases. ITDG Publ. London, UK. p. 254.
  25. Kurtu, M.Y. (2004). An assessment of the productivity for meat and carcass yield of camels (Camelus dromedaries) and the consumption of camel meat in the eastern region of Ethiopia. Trop. Ani. Health and Prod., 36 :65-76.
  26. Kustikova, O.S. (1996). Cloning of the tag-7 gene expressed in metastatic mouse tumours. Russ. J. Gene., 32: 540-546.
  27. Makinen-Kijunen, S. and T. Palosne (1992). A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of bovine beta-lactoglobulin in infant feeding formulas and human milk allergy. 47: 347-352.
  28. Mal, G., D. Suchitra Sena, V.K. Jain, N.M. Singhvi and M.S. Sahani (2000). Role of camel milk as an adjuvant nutritional supplement in human tuberculosis patients. Live. Int. 4(4): 7-14.
  29. Mal, G., D. Suchitra Sena, V.K. Jain and M.S. Sahani (2001). Therapeutic utility of camel milk as nutritional supplement in chronic pulmonary tuberculosis. Live. Int. 7: 4-8.
  30. Mal, G., D. Suchitra Sena, V.K. Jain and M.S. Sahani (2006). Therapeutic value of camel milk as a nutritional supplement for multiple drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis patients. Israel J. Vet. Med., 61(3-4): 88-94.
  31. Mal, G., D. Suchitra Sena and M.S. Sahani (2007). Changes in chemical and macro-minerals content of dromedary milk during lactation. J. Camel Prac. and Res., 14(2): 195-197.
  32. Martin, F., C. Volpari, C. Steinkuhler, N. Dimas (1997). Affinity selection of a camelized V (H) domain antibody inhibitor of hepatitis Cvirus NS3 protease. Prot. Eng. 10: 607-614.
  33. Morin, D.E., L.L. Rowan and W.L. Hurley (1995). Comparative study of proteins, peroxidase activity and N-acetyl-b- glucosaminidase activity in llama milk. Small Rumi. Res., 17: 255-261.
  34. Muyldermans, S., C. Cambillauand, L. Wyns (2001). Recognition of antigens by single-domain antibody fractions: the superfluous luxury of paired domains. Trends in Biochem. Sci., 26: 230-235.
  35. Narmuratova, M., G. Konuspayeva, G. Loiseau, A. Serikbaeva, B. Natalie, M. Didier and F. Bernard (2006). Fatty acids composition of dromedary and Bactrian camel milk in Kazakhstan. J. Camel Prac. and Res. 13(1): 45-50.
  36. NRCC (2006-07). Annual Report Published by Director, NRC on Camel, Bikaner, Rajasthan, p. 23.
  37. Ohri, S.P. and B.K. Joshi (1961). Composition of milk of camel. The Ind. Vet. J., 38 (10): 514–516.
  38. Raghvendar, S., S.K. Shukla, M.S. Sahani, C. Bhakat (2004). Chemical and physicochemical properties of camel milk at different stages of lactation. In: International Conference, Saving the Camel and peoples’ Livelihoods, Sadri, Rajasthan India, p. 37.
  39. Rao, M.B., R.C. Gupta and N.N. Dastur (1970). Camels milk and milk products. Ind. J. Dairy Sci. 23: 71-78.
  40. Riechmann, L. and S. Muyldermans (1999). Single-domain antibodies: comparison of camel V H and camelised human V.H. domains. J. Immun. Methods, 231: 25-38.
  41. Sahani, M.S., M. Rathinasabapathy, G. Mal and N.D. Khanna (1998). Milking technique and ther factors affecting milk production potential in different breeds of camels under farm conditions. Ind. J. Ani. Sci., 68(3): 254-256.
  42. Shabo, Y and R. Yagil (2005). Etiology of autism and camel milk as therapy. Int. J. of Disab. and Hum. Dev., 4: 67-70.
  43. Shabo, Y., R. Barzel and R. Yagil (2008). Etiology of crohn’s disease and camel milk treatment. J.Camel Prac. and Res. 15(1): 55-59.
  44. Shabo, Y., R. Barzel, M. Margoulis and R. Yagil (2005). Camel milk for food allergies in children. Immunology and Allergies. Israel Medi. Asso. J. 7: 1-3.
  45. Shalash, M.R. (1979). Utilization of camel meat and milk in human nourishment. In: Camels. IFS Symposium, Sudan. Pp. 285–306.
  46. Sharmanov, T.S., R.K. Kedyrova, O.E. Shlygina and R.D. Zhaksylykova (1978). Changes in the indicators of radioactive isotope studies of the liver of patients with chronic hepatitis during treatment with whole camels and mares milk. Vaprosy Pitaniya 1: 9-13.
  47. Singh, R., S.K. Ghorui and M.S. Sahani (2006). Camel milk: Properties and processing potential. The Indian camel. NRCC, Bikaner. Pp. 59-73.
  48. Stahl, T., H.I. Sallman, R. Duehlmeier and U. Wernery (2006). Selected vitamins and fatty acid patterns in dromedary milk and colostrum. J. Camel Prac. and Res., 13(1): 53-57.
  49. Tezera, G. (1998). Characterization of camel husbandry practices and camel milk and meat utilization in Jijiga and Shnlie zone, Somali region. An MSc. Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University, p.145.
  50. Ueda, T., K. Sakamaki, T. Kuroki, I. Yano and S. Nagata (1997). Molecular cloning and characterization of the chromosomal gene for human lactoperoxidase. Europ. J. Biochem., 243: 32-41.
  51. Wernery, U. (2006). Camel milk, the white gold of the desert. J. Camel Prac. and Res., 13(1): 15-26.
  52. Wernery, U. (2007). Camel milk –new observations. In T.K. Gahlot. Proceedings of the International Camel Conference, CVAS, Bikaner. Pp. 200-204.
  53. Yagil, R. (1985). The Desert Camel: Comparative Physiology. Comparative Animal Nutrition, 5: Karger Ag., Basel, Switzerland. p.163.
  54. Yagil, R. (1986). The camel: Self- sufficiency in animal protein in drought- stricken areas. J. on Ani. Hea., Produ. and Products, 57: 2-10.
  55. Yagil, R. (2000). Lactation in the desert camel (Camelus dromedaries) In: Gahlot, T.K. (ed.) Selected topics in camelids. The Camelid Publishers, Bikaner. PP. 61-73.
  56. Yagil, R. and C. Van Creveld (2000). Medicinal use of camel milk. Fact or Fancy In: Proc. 2nd Intl.Camelid Conf.Agro- economics of Camelid Farming. Almaty. September. p. 80.
  57. Yagil, R. and Z. Etzion (1980). The effect of drought conditions on the quality of camel’s milk. J. Dairy Res., 47: 159–166.
  58. Zagorski, O., A. Maman, A. Yaffe, A. Meisles, C. Van Creveld, and R. Yagil (1998). Insulin in milk – a comparative study. Int. J. Ani. Sci. 13: 241-244.

Editorial Board

View all (0)