Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, volume 38 issue 1 (march 2019) : 61-66

Investigation of bile tolerance and deconjugation ability of various Lactobacillus Casei group strains

Suman Kandola
1Department of Biochemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119, Haryana, India.
Cite article:- Kandola Suman (NaN). Investigation of bile tolerance and deconjugation ability of various Lactobacillus Casei group strains. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 38(1): 61-66. doi: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-886.
Lactobacillus casei group is commonly used as probiotics. Various factors affect their viability in gastrointestinal tract. Twenty two strains of Lactobacillus casei group were assessed for bile tolerance and deconjugation attribute. All strains had shown moderate activity at 0% bile concentration. At 1% bile concentration CSCC 2607 has shown highest growth while remaining Lactobacillus strains have shown fair growth. At 1.5% bile concentration only seven Lactobacillus strains showed growth and ASCC 1521 showed highest activity. All seven strains were able to deconjugate both sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate at varying levels. ASCC 1520 showed lowest deconjugation activity for sodium glycocholate. All seven strains showed lower deconjugation of sodium taurocholate compared to sodium glycocholate. ASCC 290 was least capable of deconjugation of sodium taurocholate. When mixture of sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate having the similar molar ratio in human bile, was taken, all seven strains showed consistent cholic acid secretion. ASCC 1521 also showed highest cholic acid liberation while ASCC 1520 showed lowest deconjugation ability. This study suggests the importance to identify all the useful Lactobacillus strains which are able to tolerate and deconjugate, high bile concentration in order to study further for their therapeutic benefits. 
  1. Ahn, Y.T., Kim, G.B., Lim, K.S., Baek, Y.J. and Kim, H.U. (2003). Deconjugation of bile salts by Lactobacillus isolates. International Dairy journal; 13(4): 303-311.
  2. Beck, C. and Necheles, H. (1961). Benificial effects of administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus in diarrhoea and other intestinal disorders Am J Gastroenterol; 35: 522-533. 
  3. Berrada, N., Lemeland, J. F., Laroche, G., Thovenot, P. and Piaia, M. (1991). Bifidobactrium from fermented milk: Survival during gastic transit. J Dairy Sci; 74: 409.
  4. Brashears, M.M., Jaroni, D., Trimble, J., (1998). Isolation, selection and characterization of lactic acid bacteria for a competitive exclusion product to reduce shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle. J. Food Prot. 66, 355– 363.
  5. Çakýr, Ý. (2003). Determination of some probiotic properties on Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Ankara University Thesis of Ph.D.
  6. Charteris, W.P., Kelly, P.M., Morelli, L., Collins, K. (1998). Antibiotic susceptibility of potential probiotic Lactobacillus species. J. Food Protect.; 61:1636-1643.
  7. Davenport, H.W. (1997). Physiology of the digestive tract. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers Inc.
  8. De-Vries, M.C., Vaughan, E.E., Kleerebezem, M. and de Vos, W.M. (2006). Lactobacillus plantarum survival, functional and potential probiotic properties in the human intestinal tract. International Dairy Journal; 16: 1018–1028.
  9. Gilliland, S. E. and Speck, M. L. (1977). Deconjugation of bile acids by intestinal Lactobacilli. Appl Environ Microbiol; 33(1): 15-18.
  10. Gilliland, S.E. and Kim, H.S. (1984). Effect of viable starter culture bacteria in yogurt on lactose utilization in humans. Journal of Dairy Science; 67: 1–6.
  11. Gilliland, S.E. (1987). Importance of bile tolerance in lactobacilli used as dietary adjunct: In: Biotechnology in the feed industry. [T. P. Lyons]. Alltech Feed Co, Lexington, KY: 149-155.
  12. Gilliland, S.E. and Walker, D.K. (1990). Factors to consider when selecting a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a dietary adjunct to produce a hypocholesterolemic effect in humans. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 905- 911.
  13. Hamon, E., Horvatovich, P., Izquierdo, E., Bringel, F., Marchioni, E., Aoudé-Werner, D. and Ennahar, S. (2011). Comparative proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum for the identification of key proteins in bile tolerance. BMC Microbiology; 11: 63.
  14. Irwin, J. L., Johnson, C. G., and Kopalo, J. (1944). A photometric method of the determination of cholates in bile and blood. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 153: 439–457.
  15. Lankaputhra, W. E. V. and Shah, N. P. (1995). Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. in the presence of acid and bile salts. Cultured Dairy Products J; 30: 2-7.
  16. Liong, M. T. and Shah, N. P. (2005). Acid and bile tolerance and cholesterol removal ability of lactobacilli strains. Journal of Dairy Science 88:55-66.
  17. Margolles, A., García, L., Sánchez, B., Gueimonde, M. and de los Reyes-Gavilán, C.G., (2003). Characterisation of a Bifidobacterium strain with acquired resistance to cholate—a preliminary study. International Journal of Food Microbiology; 82:191–198.
  18. Marteau, P., Pochart, P., Bouhnik, Y. and Rambaud, J. C. (1993). Fate and effects of some transiting microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics; 74:1–21.
  19. Millette, M., Luquet, F-M., Marcia Teresa Ruiz, M.T. and Lacroix, M. (2008). Characterization of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains. Dairy Science Technology; 88:695–705.
  20. Pereira, D.I.A and Gibson, G.R. (2002) Cholesterol assimilation by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from the human gut. Appl Environ Microbiol, 68: 4689–4693.
  21. Sandine, W. E. (1979). Roles of Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract. Journal of Food Protection; 42: 259–262.
  22. Saran, S., Singh, K., Bisht, M.S. and Teotia, U.V.S. (2012). Analyzing probiotic attributes to assess comparatively two isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus in prebiotics, honey and inulin. Double Helix Research’s-International Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences; 2(1):26-34.
  23. Shah, N. P. (2000). Probiotic Bacteria: Selective enumeration and survival in dairy foods J Dairy Sci; 83: 894-907.
  24. Simon, G. L. and Gorbach, L. (1987). Intestinal flora and gastrointestinal function: In: Physiology of gastrointestinal Tract. [L. R. Johnson. (ed)] Raven Press, New York, NY. 2: 1729.
  25. Succi, M., Tremonte, P., Reale, A., Sorrentino, E., Grazia, L., Pacifico, S. and Coppola, R. (2005). Bile salt and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. FEMS Microbiology Letters; 244:129–137.
  26. Tsai, C-C., Lin, P-P. and Hsieh, Y.M. (2007). Three Lactobacillus strains from healthy infant stool inhibit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli grown in vitro. Anaerobe 14: 1-7.
  27. Tuomola, E.M., Ouwehand, A.C. and Salminen, S.J. (2000). Chemical, physical and enzymatic pre-treatments of probiotic lactobacilli alter their adhesion to human intestinal mucus glycoproteins. International Journal of Food Microbiology; 60(1): 75-81.
  28. Veldman, A., (1992). Probiotics. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 15: 117; 345-348.
  29. Walker and Gilliland, S.E. (1993). Relationship among bile tolerance, bile salt deconjugation and assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Journal of Dairy Science: 76: 956-961.

Editorial Board

View all (0)