The results related with the methane emission and its relation with the different groups have been presented in Table 2 and 3 respectively. The average methane emission (MJ/d/animal) in different groups was 5.27±0.08, 4.86±0.11, 4.82±0.05 and 4.15±0.08 for T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results showed about a 21.26 per cent reduction in methane production in CO treatment groups with comparison to control groups. Similarly methane production in the MOP treatment group showed 8.53 per cent reduction with comparison to the control group. The NOP treated group had 7.77 percent reduction over the control group. The highest methane emission was found in control group (T0) and coconut oil treated group (T3) showed lowest methane emission. The statistical analysis of the data shows highly significant (P<0.01) reduction in methane emission among the treatments.
Table 2: Effect of feeding ANF containing feed additives on methane (MJ/day) emission in growing calves (7 days digestion trial).
Table 3: Effect of feeding ANF containing feed additives on methane gas (MJ/day) emission in growing calves.
The current results concurred with those of Dong et al., (1997),
who claimed that CO had the greatest impact, lowering CH4
generation in diets high in grass hay by 59 per cent and in concentrate by 85 Per cent. Like this, Machmüllerand Kreuzer (1999)
found that adding CO to the grass hay diet at the ratios of 3.5 and 7 percent reduced methane generation by 28 and 73 per cent, respectively. According to their findings, supplementing with lauric acid on its own had a greater methane-suppressing impact than doing so in conjunction with myristic acid. This result can be a result of the MCFA in CO additive action.
According to previous research by Alexander et al., (2008),
adding Moringa oleifera
aqueous methanol extract (2 mg/ml), which contained 1.11 per cent hydrolysable tannin and 4.09 per cent saponin, reduced total gas generation by 6.8 percent compared to control. The net gas production of tannin-rich forages was also reported by Njidda and Nasiru (2010)
to be 2.83 ml in Acacia tortilis, 1.14 ml in Leucaena leucocephala
, 8.16 ml in Moringa oleifera
and 25.50 ml in Ziziphus mucronata
, respectively. Additionally, they reported that the increasing levels of total condensed tannin in the forages of Leucaena leucocephala
, Ziziphus mucronata
, Acacia tortilis and Moringa oleifera
, respectively, decreased the total gas generation.
Blood serum indices in growing calves fed ANF containing feed additives
The blood serum glucose (ml/dl), total protein (gm/dl), albumin (gm/dl), globulin (gm/dl) and A:G Ratio etc
. parameters of crossbred calves in different groups have been given in Table 4. Blood serum globulin concentration was statistically (P
>0.05) similar in all treatment groups at the end of the experimental period.
Table 4: Effect of feeding ANF containing feed additives on blood serum indices in growing calves.
The results was in agreement with Blood et al., (1983)
who observed the serum glucose concentration of cattle on CO supplementation in a study was within the normal range for healthy ruminants. In a study reported by Johnson et al., (1988),
it was observed that no effects were recorded in glucose concentration when dairy cows were fed with supplementary dietary fat. Present finding of this study was more related with Ahmad et al., (2017)
who reported the effect of supplementation of MOP on blood constituents of suckling calves. No significant difference was observed in the value of total protein, globulin, urea, creatinine and ALT enzyme levels. However, significant changes were observed in values of total serum albumin and AST enzyme levels among the groups.
Present findings were more related with Adelusi et al., (2018)
who reported blood serum biochemistry of grazing cattle drenched with various levels of CO. Blood glucose and total bilirubin contents of cattle were not significantly affected (P
<0.05) by CO inclusion. However, there was significant difference (P
<0.05) in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, conjugated bilirubin and total protein content.
Effect of feeding ANF on roundworms (Nematodes) and tapeworms (Cestodes)
The egg counts (per g feces) were almost nil in all the dietary treatments and it has been presented in Picture 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The degree of infection was observed to be negligible. It indicated that natural infection was not able to establish in calves. The NLP treated group was found strongly superior in reducing roundworms or eggs count over the T0, T2 and T3 groups.
Pic 1: Stool examination reports at 30th Day.
Pic 2: Stool examination reports at 60th day.
Pic 3: Stool examination reports at 120th day.
Present finding was close to the results of Amin et al., (2009)
who evaluated aqueous extract of 20 indigenous plants against adult gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants and observed 100 percent efficacy of NLP (A
), tobacco, barbados lilac, betel leaf, pineapple, jute, turmeric, garlic, dodder and bitter gourd @ 100mg/ml.
Cabardo and Portugaliza (2017)
also evaluated the anthelmintic potential of Moringa oleifera seed
ethanolic and aqueous extracts against Haemonchus contortus
eggs and infective stage larvae (L3s). In the ovicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed 95.89 percent and 81.72 per cent egg hatch inhibition at 15.6 mg/mL, respectively. In the larvicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited 56.94 and 92.50 per cent efficacy at 7.8 mg/mL, respectively. M
is reported to contain various bioactive compounds with pharmacological activities such as anthelmintic property (Wang, 2016
). He also evaluated the anthelmintic activity of M
seeds against H
eggs and L3s and determined the different secondary metabolites that are possibly responsible for the anthelmintic activity of M
The NLP treated group was found to be surprisingly better in reducing tapeworms or eggs count over the treatment T0, T2 and T3. Present results of this study was more or less comparable with Akbar and Ahmed, 2003 who reported the per cent reduction in fecal worm egg counts for albendazole and pineapple (88% and 82% reduction) were higher than that for neem leaves (56% reduction; P<0.05).