An Insight in to the Automation of the Dairy Industry: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1856    | Article Id: DR-1856 | Page : 125-131
Citation :- An Insight in to the Automation of the Dairy Industry: A Review.Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research.2022.(41):125-131
R. Heema, S. Sivaranjani, K.S. Gnanalakshmi heemaravidrapandian@gmail.com
Address : Department of Food Safety and Quality Assurance, College of Food and Dairy Technology, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Science University, Chennai-600 052, Tamil Nadu, India.
Submitted Date : 16-12-2021
Accepted Date : 17-02-2022


The dairy industry was gaining enormous technical advances to meet out the targeted production quantity by converting the raw material into finished goods. Automation techniques have been implemented to ensure intense quality and safety for the desired food product. By entering this, automation technology for processing has gained great potential for improved safety, quality and profitability by optimizing process parameters and control. Automation technique involves multidisciplinary technologies such as robotics, Artificial Intelligence and several other mechanical, electrical, electronic devices and computers usually in combination. Among the various applications of automation in the dairy industry, Automatic milking systems or milking robots are very no table. It is also the most successful and significant in the current scenario of Livestock management and maintenance. However, there is a broad range of applications for automation in the dairy industry for continuous operation without any deviations and adjustments with desired consistency and shape according to the nature of the product, which cannot be done manually.


Artificial intelligence Automation Dairy processing Robotics


  1. Alejandro, M. (2016). Automation devices in sheep and goat machine milking. Small Ruminant Research. 142: 48-50.
  2. Berington, T.M. (1979). Auto mation in dairy herds. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 32(3): 135-136.
  3. Bhavya, Y., Venkatesh, B. and Thirupathigoud, K. (2018). Mechanisation and automation trends intheurban dairy farms: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 7(3): 158-160.
  4. Bibi, F., Guillaume, C., Gontard, N. and Sorli, B. (2017). A review: RFID technology having sensingaptitudes for food industry and their contribution to tracking and monitoring of food products. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 62: 91-103.
  5. Bradymark and Fetzermark. (2017). Evaluating the costs and benefits of automating your dairy with robotics. Progressive dairyman. https://www.progressivedairy.com/topics/management/ evaluating-the-costs-and-benefits-of-automating-your- dairy-with-robotics (Accessedon 19July2021)
  6. Burfeind, O., Bruins, M., Bos, A., Sannmann, I., Voigtsberger, R. and Heuwieser, W. (2014). Diagnosis of acute puerperal metritis by electronic nose device analysis of vaginal discharge in dairy cows. Theriogenology. 82(1): 64-70.
  7. Caldwell, D.G., Davis, S., Masey, R.J.M. and Gray, J.O. (2009). Automation in Food Processing. In Springer Handbook of Automation. 1041-1059.
  8. Callaway, E.H. and Stojmenovic, I. (2005). The Wireless Sensor Network MAC. Handbook of Sensor Networks. 239-276.
  9. Carolan, M. (2020). Automatedagri food futures: Robotics, labor and the distributive politics of digital agriculture. The Journal of Peasant Studies. 47(1): 184-207.
  10. Cosmi, F., Fabro, C., SusmelP and Zoppello, G. (1997). Automation in dairy farms: Arobotic milking system. IEEE 8th International Conference on Advanced Robotics. Proceedings. ICAR’97- Monterey, CA, USA, 7-9 July. 33-37.
  11. De Koning, K., van der Vorst, Y. and Meijering, A. (2002). Automatic milking experience and development in Europe. In Proceedings of the first North American Conference on Robotic Milking, Toronto, Canada. pp. I1-I11.
  12. Dhage, B. and Dhage, A. (2016). Automation of CIP Process in dairy industries using programable controllers and SCADA. In 2016 International Conference on Automatic Control and Dynamic Optimization Techniques (ICACDOT), 318- 323.
  13. Derby, S. (2007). Change is a four-letter word. International Robt: An International Journal. 34(4).
  14. Firk, R., Stamer, E., Junge, W. and Krieter, J. (2002). Automation of oestrus detection in dairy cows: A review. Livestock Production Science. 75(3): 219-232.
  15. Friedrich, W. and Lim, P. (2001). Robotic Food Applications Example: Ice Cream Portioning. In Proceedings of the 2001 Australian Conferenceon Robotics and Automation. 56-60.
  16. Fung, D.Y. (2002). Predictions for rapid methods and automation in food microbiology. Journal of AOAC International. 85(4): 1000-1002.
  17. Giacomo, P., Fabio, A., Maurizio, C., Luciano, M. and Marisanna, S. (2005). Automation in dairy cattle milking: Experimental results and considerations, Italian Journal of Animal Science. 4: 17-25.
  18. Grimsen, S., Jaques, R.N., Erenst, V. and Balchen, J.G. (1987). Aspects of automation in alobster farming plant. IFAC Proceedings. 20(7): 221-224. 
  19. Gunasekaran, S. (1996). Computervision technology for food quality assurance. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 7(8): 245-256.
  20. Heikkila, A.M., Vanninen, L. and Manninen, E. (2010). Economics of small-scale Dairy Farm Shaving Robotic Milking. In: Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Precision Dairy Management, Toronto, Canada.
  21. Holmes, J.F., Russell, G. and Allen, J.K. (2013). Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and related systems for automated process control in the food industry: An introduction. In Roboticsand Automation in the Food Industry. 130-142.
  22. Ipema, A.H. and Benders, E. (1992). Production, duration of machine-milking and teat quality of dairy cows milked 2, 3 or 4 times daily with variable intervals. Publication European Association for Animal Production. 65: 244-244.
  23. Jack Rodenburg (2021a). Robotic milking gets more affordablee very year. Dairy Logix. (http://www.dairylogix.com/15%20 Robotic%20Milking%20is%20getting%20more%20 affordable%20every%20year.pdf).
  24. Jack Rodenburg (2021b). Robotic Milking has Big Labour Saving Benefits. Dairy Logix. (http://www.dairylogix.com/14%20 Robotic%20Milking%20has%20big%20labour% 20saving%20benefits.pdf).
  25. Jamshed, I., Khan, Z.H. and Azfar, K. (2017). Prospects of robotics in food industry. Food Science and Technology (Campinas). 37(2): 159-165.
  26. Jha, K., Doshi, A., Patel, P. and Shah, M. (2019). A comprehensive review on automation in agriculture using artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture. 2: 1-12.
  27. Judal, A. and Bhadania, A.G. (2015). Automation in Dairy and Food Processing Industry. In Proceedings of the International Conference of Advanced Research and Innovation. 490-495.
  28. Kulkarni, A.S., Joshi, D.C. and Tagalpallewar, G.P. (2014). Biosensors for food and dairy industry. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 33(4): 292-296.
  29. Lobasenko, B.A., Kotlyarov, R.V. and Sazonova, E.K. (2019). Automation of the Production of Cottage Cheese Using the Ultrafiltration Method. In International Science and Technology Conference” EastConf”. pp. 1-5. 
  30. Loshkarev, I.Y., Shirobokova, T.A. and Shuvalova, L.A. (2019). Automation of artificial lighting design for dairy herdcows. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1333(4): 042018. IOP Publishing.
  31. Michaelis, I., Burfeind, O. and Heuwieser, W. (2014). Evaluation of oestrous detection in dairy cattle comparing an automated activity monitoring system to visual observation. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 49(4): 621-628.
  32. Moreno Masey, Rene, J., Gray, John, O., Dodd, Tony, J., Caldwell, Darwin, G. (2010). Guidelines for the design of low cost robots for the food industry. Industrial Robot: An International Journal. 37(6): 509-517.
  33. Mullen, D. (2006). Innovations in the Flexibility of Food Packaging Machinery.(https://www.iopp.org/files/public/Clemson MullenFlexibleforFood.pdf).
  34. Nasirahmadi, A., Edwards, S.A. and Sturm, B.(2017). Implementation of machine vision for detecting behaviour of cattle and pigs. Livestock Science. 202: 25-38.
  35. Olson, N.F. (1975). Mechanized and continuous cheese making processes for Cheddar and other ripened cheese. Journal of Dairy Science. 58(7): 1015-1021.
  36. Peacock, A. and Boyce, R. (2003). Biomimeticrobotic sherald snewera in dairy farming, Industrial Robot. 30(5): 414-416.
  37. Pomies, D. and Bony, J. (2000). Comparison of hygienic quality of milk collected with a milking robot vs. A conventional milking parlour. In Robotic milking: Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Lelystad, Netherlands, 17-19 pp. 122-123. Wageningen Pers.
  38. Prasad, S. (2017). Application of Robotics in Dairy and Food Industries: A Review. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 6(3): 1856-1864.
  39. Purnell, G. (2013). Robotics and Automation in the Food Industry, Robotics and Automation in the Food Industry. 304-328.
  40. Ruiz-Garcia, L., Lunadei, L., Barreiro, P. and Robla, I. (2009). A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends. Sensors. 9(6): 4728-4750.
  41. Sain, M., Singh, R. and Kaur, A. (2020). Robotic automation in dairy and meat processing sector for hygienic processing and enhanced production. Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainable Development. 15(3): 543-550.
  42. Sarangi, S., Umadikar, J. and Kar, S. (2016). Automation of Agricultur Support Systems using Wisekar: Case study of a crop- disease advisory service. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 122: 200-210.
  43. Shelley, Anthony, N. (2016). Incorporating machine vision in precision dairy farming technologies. Theses and Dissertations- Electrical and Computer Engineering. 86.
  44. Singh, H. (2018). Robotics-An emerging technology in dairy industry. International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering. 6(2): 20-23.
  45. Setiawan, A.I., Furukawa, T. and Preston, A. (2004). A low-cost gripper for an apple picking robot. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004. Proceedings. ICRA’04. 5: 4448-4453.
  46. Sistler, F. (1987). Robotics and intelligent machines in agriculture. IEEE Journal on Robotics and Automation. 3(1): 3-6.
  47. Soliman, F. (2000). Application of knowledge management for hazard analysis in the Australian dairy industry, Journal of Knowledge Management. 4(4): 287-294.
  48. Upton, J., Reinemann, D.J., Penry, J.F. and Thompson, P.D. (2016). A quarter milking analysis device-Development and demonstration. Biosystems Engineering. 147: 259-264.
  49. Uzam, M. and Jones, A.H. (1998). Discreteevent control system design using automation Petri nets and their ladder diagram implementation. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 14(10): 716-728.
  50. Vanden Berg, F., Lyndgaard, C.B., Sørensen, K.M. and Engelsen, S.B. (2013). Process analytical technology in the food industry. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 31(1): 27-35.
  51. Vasavada, P.C. (1993). Rapid methods and automation in food microbiology: Beyond Delphi forecast1. Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology. 2(1): 1-7.
  52. Wadalkar, N.M., Mudhalwadkar, R.P. and Sulkekar, A. (2019). Development of Electrical Impedance Sensor System for Milk Adulteration (A1 and A2). 3rd International Conferenceon Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI) (2019, April). 107-109.
  53. Warrier, A.S. and Minz, P.S. (2014). Robotics in Dairy and Food Industry. 9th Convention of India Dairy Engineers and IDEA National Seminar.

Global Footprints