Loading...

Effect of Blanching and Drying Temperatures on Various Physico-chemical Characteristics of Green Beans

DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1430    | Article Id: DR-1430 | Page : 213-223
Citation :- Effect of Blanching and Drying Temperatures on Various Physico-chemical Characteristics of Green Beans.Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research.2019.(38):213-223
Neelofar Manzoor, Aamir H Dar, Shafat Khan, Hilal R Hakeem and Hilal A Makroo hilalmakroo@gmail.com
Address : Department of Food Technology, IUST Awantipora, Kashmir- 192122 India
Submitted Date : 19-02-2019
Accepted Date : 2-10-2019

Abstract

Fresh green bean samples (un-blanched and blanched) were dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C, followed by studying the effect of blanching treatment and drying temperature in various characteristics and storage study in  HDPE and LDPE packaging material. The blanched dried green bean samples showed lower ash content but higher rehydration ratio, chlorophyll content and carbohydrate content than un-blanched dried green bean samples. No significant change in moisture, protein, fat and fibre content was observed after blanching. The green beans were dried up to the moisture content of 14±0.5 from an initial moisture content of > 90 %. The increase in the drying temperature reduced the drying time. Blanching treatment enhanced the drying rate, the kinetics parameter showed that the value of ‘k’ ranged from 0.008-0.013 and 0.009-0.015 /min in un-blanched and blanched samples respectively. The drying temperature caused decrease in color parameters, chlorophyll content, however RR was observed to increase with the drying temperature. The moisture, chlorophyll content, color values (L* a* b*) and rehydration ratio was observed to decrease with the storage. The better desirable quality attributes of green beans were retained in HDPE as compared to LDPE. In conclusion it was suggested that drying temperature effects the quality attributes of the green beans and also the packaging material also influence the storage stability of the dried green beans.

Keywords

Blanching Chlorophyll Color Drying Green beans Rehydration

References

  1. Agarwal, A. K., Mishra, N. K., Sandey, K. K. and Sinha, G. (2015). Solar drying of pea: Comparison of various methods considering its dehydration and rehydration characteristics. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, pp: 83-88.
  2. Alakali, J. S., Kucha, C. T and Rabiu, I. A. (2015). Effect of drying temperature on nutritional quality of Moringa oleifera leaves. African Journal of Food Science, 9(7):395-39.         
  3. Al-Amin, M., Hossain, M. S., & Iqbal, A. (2015). Effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on dehydration and rehydration characteristics of carrot. Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science, 3(2), 23-28.
  4. AOAC, (1990). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edn. AOAC, Washington, D.C, pp: 556.
  5. Barbosa-Canovas, G. V., & Vega-Mercado, H. (1996). Other methods of dehydration of foods and packaging aspects (Eds.), Dehydration of foods, New York: chapman & Hall.
  6. Belitz, H. D., Grosch, W., Schieberle, P. (2009). Food Chemistry, 4th edition.  Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; Springer.1070.
  7. Bello, M. O., Falade, O. S., Adewusi, S. R., Olawore, N. O. (2008). Studies on the chemical compositions and antinutrients of lesser known Nigerian fruits. African. Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 3972-3979.
  8. Chen, B.H., & Huang, J.H. (1998). Degradation and isomerization of chlorophyll a and & carotene as affected by various heating and illumination treatments. Food Chemistry, 62 (3), 299-307.
  9. Doymaz, İ. (2005). Drying behaviour of green beans. Journal of food Engineering, 69(2), 161-165.
  10. Doymaz, İ. (2011). Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly/CICEQ, 17(2), 199-205.
  11. Doymaz, I., Kipcak, A. S., & Piskin, S. (2015a). Characteristics of thin-layer infrared drying of green bean. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 33(1), 83-90.
  12. Doymaz, I., Kipcak, A. S., Piskin, S. (2015 b). Microwave drying of green bean        slices: Drying kinetics and physical quality. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 33(4): 367-376.
  13. Doymaz, I., Pala, M. (2002). Hot air drying characteristics of red pepper.  Journal of Food Engineering,55: 331-335. 
  14. Ertekin, C., & Yaldız, O. (2010, June). Thin layer drying of sliced squash by forced convection. In 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR) (pp. 13-17).
  15. Fadupin, G. T., Osuoji, U., & Ariyo, O. (2014). Effect of Blanching on Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Content of Pumpkin (cucurbita pepo) Leaves. African Journal of food and nutrition, 12(2): 18-24.
  16. FAOSTAT.(2018). – Food and Agriculture Organization of United State. Available in: http://www.fao.org/home/en. Acessed in February 2018.
  17. Gouveia, C.S.S., Freitas, G., De-Brito, J.H., Slaski, J.J. and De-Carvalho, Miguel A.A.Pinheiro. (2014). Nutritional and mineral variability in 52 accessions of common bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Madeira Island. AgriculturalSciences,5: 317-329.
  18. Gunes, B., & Bayindirh, A. (1993). Peroxidase and lipoxygenase inactivation           during blanching of green beans, green peas and carrots. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie,26: 406–410.
  19. Gupta, M. K., Sehgal, V. K., Singh, A.K. and Singh, R. K. (2012). Effect of process parameters and storage length on quality of dried cauliflower during storage. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge,11(1): 177-184.
  20. Hörtensteiner, S., & Kräutler, B. (2011). Chlorophyll breakdown in higher plants. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics, 1807(8), 977-988.
  21. Kalaskar, A.B., Sonkamble, A.M. and Patil, P.S. (2012).  Studies on drying and         dehydration of fenugreek leaves. International Journal of Processing &            Post Harvest Technology, 3(1): 15-17.
  22. Koca, N., Karadeniz, F., & Burdurlu, H.S. (2006). Effect of pH on chlorophyll degradation and colour loss in blanched green peas. Food Chemistry, 100, 609–15.
  23. Kshetrimayum, R., Shukla, R.N., Mishra, A. (2015). Study on drying andquality characteristics of tray and microwave            dried guava slices. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology,3(4): 2395-4752.
  24. Laparra, J.M., Glahn, R.P., Miller, D.D. (2009). Assessing potential effect of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe availability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to caco-2- cells. Journal of Food Science,74: 40-46.
  25. Lewicki, P. P. (1998). Some remarks on rehydration of dried foods. Journal of Food Engineering, 36(1): 81-87.
  26. Maldonado, S. G., Marín-Jarillo, A., Castellanos, J. Z., De Mejía, E. G., & Acosta-Gallegosc, J. A. (1996). Relationship between physical and chemical characteristics and susceptibility to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. Journal of Stored Products Research, 32(1), 53-58.
  27. Mills, J. T., & Woods, S. M. (1994). Factors affecting storage life of farm-stored field peas (Pisum sativum L.) and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Stored Products Research, 30(3), 215-226.
  28. Natabirwa, H., Mukiibi1, J., Zziwa, E and Kabirizi, J. (2016). Nutritional and            physicochemical properties of stored solar-dried cowpea leafy vegetables. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 17(1): 1–10.
  29. Nleya, K. M., Minnaar, A., Henriette, L de Kock. (2014). Relating physic-chemical properties of frozen green peas (pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality. Journal of Food Agricultural sciences,94: 857-865.
  30. Nnamani, C.V., Oselebe, H.O., and Agbatutu, A. (2009). Assessment of nutritional values of three underutilized indigenous leafy vegetables of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(9): 2321-2324.
  31. Noomhorm .A. (2007). Overview of dehydration method on quality of fruits and vegetables. SWU Sci. J. 23: 9-22.
  32. Pardeshi, I. L., Arora, S., & Borker, P. A. (2009). Thin-layer drying of green peas and selection of a suitable thin-layer drying model. Drying Technology, 27(2), 288-295.
  33. Pathare, P.B., Umezuruike, L., Opara., and Fahad, Al-Julanda Al-Said. 2013. Colour measurement and analysis in fresh and processed foods: A review. Food Bioprocess Technology, 6: 36–60.
  34. Pavani, K.V, Aduri, P. (2018). Effect of Packaging Materials on Retention of            Quality            Characteristics of Dehydrated Green Leafy Vegetables during Storage. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology,3(1).
  35. Priyanka, K., Chandni, R.C., Sankar, A and. Raghu, A.V. (2017). Effect of solar dehydration method on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of           green beans (phaseolus vulgaris). International Journal of Research            Granthaalayah,5(4): 39-44.
  36. Rajeswari, R., Pushpa, B., Naik, K. R., & Shobha, N. (2013). Dehydration of amaranthus leaves and its quality evaluation. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26(2), 276-280.
  37. Reis, R .C., Castro, V. C., Devilla, I. A. , Oliveira, C. A., Barbosa, L. S. and  Rodovalho,  R. (2013).  Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of Cumari Peppers from Para (Capsicum chinense Jacqui) Brazilian. Journal of Chemical Engineering,30(2): 337–343.
  38. Rontani, J., Beker, B., & Raphael, D. (1995). Photodegradation of chlorophyll phytyl chain in dead phytoplanktonic cells. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, 85, 137-142.
  39. Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. (1992). In: Biochemical Methods for Agricultural Sciences, Willey Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, pp: 184-185.
  40. Seevaratnam, V., Banumathi, P., Premalatha, M. R., Sundaram, S.P and Arumugam, T. (2012). Effect of packaging materials on retention of quality characteristics of selected dehydrated green leafy vegetables           during storage.World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences,7(2): 190- 194.
  41. Senadeera, W., Bhandari, B. R., Young, G., & Wijesinghe, B. (2003). Influence of shapes of selected vegetable materials on drying kinetics during fluidized bed drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 58(3), 277-283.
  42. Shete, Y. V., More, M. M., Deshmukh, S. S. and Karne, S. C. (2015). Effects of pretreatments and drying temperatures on quality of dried green peas. International Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 8(2): 220-226.
  43. Singh, G., Kawatra, A., Sehgal, S and Pragati. (2003). Effect of storage on nutritional composition of selected dehydrated green leafy vegetable, herb and carrot powders. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 58: 1-9.
  44. Singh, U. and Sagar, V. R. (2010). Quality characteristics of dehydrated leafy           vegetables influenced by packaging materials and storage temperature.  Journal of scientific and Industrial Research, 69: 785-789.
  45. Soares, M. A., Quintela, E. D., Mascarin, G. M., & Arthurs, S. P. (2015). Effect of temperature on the development and feeding behavior of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Stored Products Research, 61, 90-96.
  46. Sotelo, A., Argote, R. M., Moreno, R. S., Flores, N. I., Diaz, M. (2003). Nutritive evaluation of the seed, germinated, and string bean of Erythrina Americana and the detoxification of the material by the boiling. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 51(9): 2821-2825.
  47. Srilakshmi, B. (2003). Food Science. 3rd ed. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers. 401p.
  48. Steel, J.A., & Tong, C.H. (1996). Degradation kinetics of green color and chlorophylls in peas by colorimetry and HPLC. Journal of Food Science, 61(5): 924–928.
  49. Tandon, S. (2006). Nutritional evaluation and processin of pea (Pisum sativum var. sativum) varieties. MSc. Thesis, I.C. College of HomeScience, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, India.
  50. Traore, K., Parkouda, C., Savadogo, A. (2017). Effect of processing methods on the nutritional content of three traditional vegetables leaves: Amaranth,          black night shade and jute mallow. Food Science and Nutrition,5(6): 1139-1144.
  51. Tunde-Akintunde, T. Y., Oyelade, O. J., Akintunde, B. O.  (2014). Effect of drying temperatures and pre-treatments on drying characteristics, energy   consumption, and quality of bell pepper.  Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal, 16(2): 108-118. 
  52. Udousoro, I., Etuk, B. (2012). Effects of Heating Temperature and time on the         Nutrients and Antinutrients Composition of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F.) International Journal of Modern Chemistry, 3(1): 14-22.
  53. Von Elbe, J.H. (2000). Colorants. In: Fennena, O.W., Food chemistry. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker: Wisconsin-Madison. Chapter 10, 659-675.
  54. Watada, A. E., & Morris, L. L. (1967). Growth and respiration patterns of snap bean fruits. Plant physiology,42(6):757-761.
  55. Weemaes, C. A., Ooms, V., Van Loey, A. M., & Hendrickx, M. E. (1999). Kinetics of chlorophyll degradation and color loss in heated broccoli juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(6), 2404-2409.
  56. WFLO-World Food Logistics Organization Commodity Storage Mannual. Snap beans/Green beans, (2008). Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Unversity of Floroda.
  57. Yin, Y., Han, Y., & Liu, J. (2007). A novel protecting method for visual green color in spinach puree treated by high intensity pulsed electric fields. Journal of Food Engineering, 79, 1256–1260.

Global Footprints