Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.20

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 53 issue 5 (october 2019) : 554-559

Documentation and validation of chemosensory structures in antennae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

R. Aruna, S. Jeyarani, S. Mohankumar, C. Durairaj
1Department of Agriculture Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Cite article:- Aruna R., Jeyarani S., Mohankumar S., Durairaj C. (2019). Documentation and validation of chemosensory structures in antennae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 53(5): 554-559. doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-5084.
The studies with SEM clearly depicted that the antenna of female was longer than male antenna. Five types of sensilla namely trichodea, chaetica, styloconica, coeloconica and auricillica, and scales were observed on the flagellum of both sexes. Sensilla trichodea were distributed randomly on all segments and were the most frequent type. Six sensilla chaetica were observed on each flagellar segment in both sexes, except in the apical segment. A sensillum styloconicum was always found at the upper-middle region of each flagellar subsegment. This sensillum had a smooth petiole and a conic extremity with one to three apical structures. Sensilla coeloconica were situated from middle to the distal portion of segment. Sensilla auricillica were found among the scales and had the typical shape of rabbit’s ear. Sensilla squamiformia were present on dorsal part of the antenna among scales. They were shorter and finer than scales and were embedded in a socket and point distally. Sensilla basiconica were smaller and least abundant of all sensilla.
  1. Altner, H. and Loftus, R. (1985). Ultrastructure and function of insect thermo and hygroreceptors. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 30: 273-295.
  2. Altner, H. and Prillinger, L. (1980). Ultrastructure of invertebrate chemo, thermo and hygroreceptors and its functional significance. Inter. Rev. Cytol., 67: 69-139.
  3. Anderson, P., Hansson, B.S. and Lofqvist, J. (1995). Plant-odour-specific receptor neurones on the antennae of female and male Spodoptera littoralis. Physiol Entomol., 20: 189-98. 
  4. Chapman, R.F. (1998). Mechanoreception and chemoreception. In: The Insects, Structure and Function, 4th edn. [Chapman, R.F. (Ed)]. Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 610-652
  5. Cornford, M.E., Rowley, W.A. and Klun, J.A. (1973). Scanning electron microscopy of antennal sensilla of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66: 1079-1088.
  6. Denotter, C.J., Schuil, H.A. and Vanoosten, A.S. (1978). Reception of host plant odours and female sex phremone in Adoxophyes orana (Lepidoptera: Tortricadae) – Electrophysiology and morphology. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 24: 370-378. 
  7. Dethier, V.G. (1973). Electrophysiological studies of gustation in lepidopterous larvae. J. Comp. Physiol. A. 82: 103-134. 
  8. Gao, Y., Luo, L.Z. and Hammond, A. (2007). Antennal morphology, structure and sensilla distribution in Microplitis pallidipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Micron. 38: 684-693.
  9. Gullan, P.J. and Cranston, P.S. (2000). The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, Second edn. Blackwell, Oxford. Pp 123.
  10. Hallberg, E. and Hansson, B.S. (1999). Arthropod sensilla: morphology and phylogenetic considerations. Microsc. Res. Tech. 47: 428-439.
  11. Hallberg, E., Hansson, B.S. and Lofstedt, C.(2003). Sensilla and proprioreceptors. In: Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies: Morphology, Physiology and Development, [Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.)], 2. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin. Pp. 267-288.
  12. Isidoro, N. and Solinas. M. (1992). Functional morphology of the antennal chemosensilla of Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomologica. 27: 69-84.
  13. Jourdan, H., Barbier, R., Bernard, J. and Ferran, A.(1995). Antennal sensilla and sexual dimorphism of the adult ladybird beetle Semiadalia undecimnotata Schn. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Int. J. Insect Morphol. Embryol. 24: 307- 322.
  14. Keil, T.A. (1999). Morphology and development of the peripheral olfactory organs. In: Insect Olfaction [Hansson, B.S. (Ed.)]. Springer-    Verlag, Berlin. Pp.5-47.
  15. Kent, K.S. and Hildebrand, J.G. (1987). Cephalic sensory pathways in the central nervous system of larval Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biol. Sci. 315 (1168), 1236.
  16. Kristoffersen, L., Hallberg. E., Wallen, R. and Anderbrant, O. (2006). Sparse sensilla array on Trioza apicalis (Homoptera: Triozidae) antennae – an adaptation to high stimulus level? Arthropod Struct. Dev. 35: 85-92.
  17. Kristoffersen, L., Larsson, M.C. and Anderbrant, O. (2008). Functional characteristics of a tiny but specialized olfactory system: olfactory receptor neurons of carrot psyllids (Homoptera: Triozidae). Chem. Senses. 33: 759-769.
  18. Leal, W.S. (2005). Pheromones reception. In: The chemistry of pheromones and other semiochemicals II (Tropics in Current Chemistry) (Ed. Schulz, S.). Springer. Pp. 1-36.
  19. Ljungberg, H., Anderson, P. and Hansson. B.S. (1993). Physiology and morphology of pheromone-specific sensilla on the antennae of male and female Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Insect Physiol., 39: 253-260. 
  20. Mochida, O. (1973). The important insect pests Spodoptera litura (F.) and S. littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on various crops - Morphological descriptions of the adult, pupal and larval stages. Appl. Entomol. Zool., 8: 205-214.
  21. Mochizuki, F. and Shibuya, T. (1991). Antennal single sensillum responses to sex pheromone in male beetworm, Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 26: 409-411.
  22. Monti, L., Cassou, B.L., Lucas, P., Malosse, C. and Silvain, J.F. (1995). Differences in sex pheromone communication systems of closely related species: Spodoptera latifascia (Walker) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou and Silvain (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 21: 641-660.
  23. Ochieng, S.A., Park, K.C., Zhu, J.W. and Baker, T.C. (2000). Functional morphology of antennae chemoreceptors of the parasitoid Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29: 231-240.
  24. Onagbola, E.O. and Fadamiro, H.Y. (2008). Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Micron. 39: 526-535.
  25. Schoonhoven, L.M. and Dethier, V.G. (1966). Sensory aspects of host-plant discrimination by lepidopterous larvae. Arch. Neer. Zool. 16: 497-530.
  26. Steinbrecht, R.A. (1984). Arthropods: chemo- thermo, and hygroreceptors. In: Biology of the Integument [Bereiter-Hahn, J., Matolsty, A.G., Richards, K.S. (Eds.)], 1. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 523-553.
  27. Subramanian, S. (1998). Studies on the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Spodoptera litura (Fab.). M.Sc. Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ., Coimbatore.
  28. Sukontason, K., Sukontason, K.L., Piangjai, S., Chaiwong, T., Boonchu, N., Kurahashi, H. and Vogtsberger, R.C. (2003). Larval ultrastructure of Parasarcophaga dux (Thomson) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Micron. 34: 359-364.
  29. Vanderpers, J.N., Cuperus, P.L. and Denotter, C.J. (1980). Distribution of sense organs on male antennae of small ermine moths, Yponomeuta sp. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Int. J. Insect Morphol. Embryol. 9: 15-23.
  30. Wu, C.J., Fan, S.Y., Jiang, Y.H., Yao, H.H. and Zhang, A.B. (2004). Inducing gathering effect of taro on Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Chinese Journal of Ecology. 23:172–174.
  31. Xie, J.J. (2006). Morphological studies on the location and classifying of chemoreceptors on the larva of Ostrinia furnacalis Guene. J. Chinese Electron Microsc. Soc. 25 : 71-75. 
  32. Xun, J., Jun, W.J., Wei, D., Bo, Y., Juan, L. and Huai, L. (2008). Description of sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica. 33: 443 – 448.
  33. Zacharuk, R.Y. (1985). Antennae and sensilla. In: Comprehensive insect physiology biochemistry and pharmacology, [Kerkut, G.A., Gilbert, L.I. (Eds.)], 6. Pergamon, Oxford. Pp. 1-69.

Editorial Board

View all (0)