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Full Research Article
Enhancing Production of Berseem through Integrated Crop Management Practices in Haryana
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Background: Berseem plays an important role as fodder, in the health and nutrition of a large livestock population in India. The productivity of green fodder per unit area could be increased by adopting recommended scientific and sustainable packages and practices.
Methods: Farmers’ participatory front line demonstrations on integrated crop management (ICM) practices and traditional method of sowing as farmers’ practice (FP) were conducted during Rabi (2016-17 to 2018-19) under CCS, HAU, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Fatehabad and Jhajjar, Haryana.
Result: The study reveals that on an average 744 q/ha green fodder yield of berseem (var. HB 2) was recorded under ICM as compare to 659 q/ha in FP which was 12.9 per cent higher over that of the FP. The pooled value of extension gap, technology gap and technology index was to the tune of 85, 36 q/ha and 4.6 percent, respectively. The data on economic parameters reveals that a net return of Rs. 30441 per ha was recorded under ICM compare to Rs. 20065 per ha in FP. The benefit-cost (B:C) ratio was figured 1:1.50 and 1:1.33 in ICM and FP, respectively, suggesting its higher profitability and economic viability of the technology demonstrated. Cluster Front line demonstration also helped in replacement of local varieties with improved recommended varieties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Technology gap (kg/ha) = Potential yield - Demonstration yield.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The perusal of data (2016-17 to 2018-19) in Table 1 reveals that green fodder yield of berseem ranged from 725 to 763 q/ha and 641 to 676 q/ha under integrated crop management (ICM) practices and farmers’ practice (FP), respectively during the study period. The technological intervention thus gave yield enhancement to the tune of 12.5 to 14.8 % over FP. The yield of any crop plant depends upon the source sink relationship and is the cumulative function of various growth parameters and yield attributing components of sink viz. growth and dry matter content etc. The pooled data (2016-17 to 2018-19) indicated that average green fodder yield of berseem was to the tune of 744 q/ha in ICM as compare to 659 q/ha in FP, which was 12.9 % higher than that of FP. It was the impact of the use of high yielding improved variety, optimum seed rate, recommended fertilizer, seed treatment and control of insect-pest and disease at economic threshold level. More and less similar yield enhancement in different crops in front line demonstration has amply been documented by Singha et al., (2020) and Patel and Patel (2020).
The extension gap of consecutive three year study presented in Table 1 was estimated to be 87, 83 and 84, respectively with a pooled value of 85 q/ha during the study period. Gap analysis is a parameter to know the yield differences between the demonstrated technology and farmers’ practice where as technology gap is a measures difference between potential yield and yield obtained under improved technology demonstration. Technology gap ranging from 17–55 q/ha was found between ICM and FP during the different time line. There exists a gap between the potential yield and demonstration yield. Technology gap is of great significance than other parameters as it indicates the constraints in implementation and drawbacks in our package of practices, these could be environmental or varietal. This may be due the due to numerous resources which affect the crop yield like weather condition, less application of inputs etc. The pooled technology index of fodder berseem was found to be 4.6 % during study period. Technology Index shows the feasibility of the technology at the farmers’ field. The lower the value of the technology index more is the feasibility. These results are in conformity with those reported by Khadda et al., (2021); Jain et al., (2019).
The input and output prices of commodities prevailed during each year of demonstration were taken for calculating cost of cultivation, gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio. The pooled data pertaining to economics presented in Table 2 shows that average gross returns and net returns was Rs. 90964; 30441 and 80588; 20065 under ICM and FP, respectively. Economic returns were observed to be a function of grain yield and market sale price of the commodity which varied along different years. The higher additional returns under demonstrations could be due to improved technology, non-monetary factors, timely operations of crop cultivation and scientific monitoring. Benefit to cost ratio (B:C) from ICM practice were comparatively higher than the FP during all the years of the study. In the quick view of the data the average B:C ratio of three consecutive years of study was figured 1:1.50 and 1:1.33 under ICM as compared FP, respectively (Table 2). This may be due to higher yield obtained under recommended practices compared to farmer’s practices. The results are in are in consonance with the findings of Prajapati et al., (2019), Patel and Patel (2020) and Khadda et al., (2021).
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
- Jain, L.K., Parewa, H.P. and Ratnoo, S. (2019). Impact of frontline demonstration on productivity and profitability analysis of cluster bean in Barmer district of Rajasthan. Forage Research. 44(4): 282-285.
- Khadda, B.S., Lata, K., Kumar, R., Jadav, J.K. and Rai, A.K. (2015). Performance of Lucerne (Medicago sativa) under semi- arid ecosystem of Central Gujarat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 85(2): 199-202.
- Khadda, B.S., Lata, K., Kumar, R., Khajuria, S. and Rai, A.K. (2021). An impact and yield gap study of frontline demonstrations on fodder sorghum variety CoFS-29 in Panchmahal district of central Gujarat. International Journal of Agricultural and Applied Sciences. 2(2): 141-144.
- Patel, B.K. and Patel, R.A. (2020). Impact of cluster frontline demonstration programme on the yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Mehsana district of Gujarat, India. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. 5(4): 901-906.
- Prajapati, P.J., Joshi, N.S., Patel, M.L., Parmar, V.S., Gadhiya, K.K. and Hadiya, N.J. (2019). Impact of frontline demonstrations on yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Amreli district of Gujarat state. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 8(2): 1431-1433.
- Sahu, J.K. and Jha, S.K. (2022). Study on fodder yield and economics of different berseem varieties (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) under Chhattisgarh plains. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 11(10): 1299-1303.
- Singha, A.K., Deka, B.C., Divya, P., Nongrum, C. and Singha, A. (2020). Yield gap and economic analysis of cluster frontline demonstrations (CFLDs) on pulses in Eastern Himalayan Region of India. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 9(3): 606-610.
- Verma, R.K., Dayanand, Rathore, R.S., Mehta, SM. and Singh, M. (2014). Yield and gap analysis of wheat productivity through frontline demonstrations in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan. Annals of Agricultural Research. 35(1): 79-82.
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