Legume Research

  • Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu

  • Print ISSN 0250-5371

  • Online ISSN 0976-0571

  • NAAS Rating 6.80

  • SJR 0.391

  • Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Legume Research, volume 46 issue 2 (february 2023) : 186-190

Effect of Phosphorus and Sulphur Levels on Growth and Yield of Summer Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.] in Middle Indo-gangatic Zone

Rohin Choudhary1,*, I.B. Pandey2, R.S. Singh2, S.K. Singh3, Harkesh Meena4, Kuldeep Singh5
1Department of Agronomy, Agriculture University, Jodhpur-342 304, Rajasthan, India.
2Department of Agronomy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Bihar, India.
3Department of Soil Science, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Bihar, India.
4Department of Agronomy, Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Cooch Behar-736 165, West Bengal, India.
5Department of Agronomy, SKN Agriculture University, Jobner-303 329, Rajasthan, India.
  • Submitted03-06-2021|

  • Accepted07-12-2021|

  • First Online 25-01-2022|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-4685

Cite article:- Choudhary Rohin, Pandey I.B., Singh R.S., Singh S.K., Meena Harkesh, Singh Kuldeep (2023). Effect of Phosphorus and Sulphur Levels on Growth and Yield of Summer Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.] in Middle Indo-gangatic Zone . Legume Research. 46(2): 186-190. doi: 10.18805/LR-4685.
Background: Phosphorus has been pointed out as one of the most important nutrient in pulse production which is responsible for vegetative growth, reproduction and consequently yield of greengram. Sulphur element is important for crop growth and development especially in pulses. At present, 42% of indian soils have been found to the sulphur deficient, sulphur is essential for synthesis of proteins, vitamins, in pulse crops.

Methods: The field investigation was carried out at research farm of TCA, Dholi, muzaffarpur Bihar during summer season 2019. The treatment comprised 3 levels of phosphorus and 3 levels of sulphur along with absolute control.

Result: The result revealed that application of 60 kg phosphorus/ha significantly increase the plant height, plant dry matter, crop growth rate and yield indices viz number of pods/plant, length of pod, number of grains/pod and 100 seed weight than 20 kg phosphorus/ha and control but was found at par with 40 kg phosphorus/ha. Sulphur levels also had significantly influenced on these growth and yield indices and recorded higher values 30 kg sulphur/ha found at par with 20 kg sulphur/ha and significantly higher over 10 kg sulphur/ha and control. Application of 60 kg phosphorus/ha significantly enhanced the grain and straw yield over 20 kg phosphorus/ha and control but was found at par to 40 kg phosphorus/ha. Among the sulphur levels grain and straw yield increased significantly up to 20 kg/ha sulphur further increase in sulphur level fail to caused significantly effect on grain and straw yields. All the phosphorus and sulphur level had significant impact on grain and straw yields over control. Similar trend was also observed with harvest index also. Optimum dose of phosphorus and sulphur for summer greengram was worked out to be 51 and 24.5 kg/ha respectively.
Agriculture contributes nearly 17% of national growth domestic product and about 65-70% of the population is dependent on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood (Anonymous, 2019a). Pulses are rich source of protein, vitamins, fibres and minerals (iron, zinc, magnesium) and some essential amino acids which play a vital role in human health (Yadav et al., 2017). Pulses are the second most importance food crops after cereals in food security. Pulses are a good source of dietary protein and have unique ability of maintain and restoring soil fertility through biological nitrogen fixation as well as addition of ample amount of residues to the soil and mushrooming the soil microbial population in the soil. In Bihar area of summer greengram is increasing and the production potential of this crop during summer can be fully explored using short duration photo-insensitive varieties. The  crop in this season is raised under controlled conditions and there is less infestation of insect, pest, diseases and even weeds. The sky remain clear and duration of sunshine hours is also more which may result in more photosynthetic efficiency subsequently more grain yield with good quality grains.

Greengram is widely grown in arid and semi-arid areas of the country. It is an extremely good source of high standard protein and holds 25-28% protein in addition to 1.0-1.4% oil, 3.3% fibre, 4.8-5.6% ash, 64-66% carbohydrate. In India it is grown an area of 3.64 million ha with production of 2.34 million ton and the average productivity is 498 kg/ha. Bihar covers an area of 1.62 lakh hectare and produce 1.08 lakh tonnes grain with an average productivity of 672 kg/ha (Anonymous, 2019b).

The low productivity of greengram is due to the cultivation of this crop without the application of fertilizer an marginal and sub-marginal land. Phosphorus is pointed out as one of the most important nutrient in greengram  production. Greengram require a high amount of phosphorus being consumed by plant and bacteria. It encourages initial development of root, increases the moulment of rhizobia, enhance nodulation and estimulate fruiting. Sulphur is important for growth and development of greengram. it is essential for synthesis of protein, vitamin and also known to enhance the nodulation activity thus it increase the atmospheric nitrogen fixation. Sulphur is major source of three amino acids (cyestin, cysteine, methionine) consequently it is important for protein production in plant. At present 42% Indian soils also deficient in sulphur (Rakesh et al., 2012). A lot of information on kharif greengram is available on these aspects but information on summer greengram under Bihar condition is not available. In order to generate location specific information on phosphorus and sulphur the study was carried out to find out the optimum dose of phosphorus and sulphur in summer greengram under agro-ecological condition of Bihar.
A field experiment was conducted at Tirhut College of Agriculture, Dholi, (25o 98¢N 85o 76¢E and an altitude of 51.3 on above mean sea level) a Campus of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar) during summer season of 2019. The soil was sandy loam, low in organic carbon (0.39%) available nitrogen (193.5 kg/ha), phosphorus (15.53 kg/ha) potassium (122.20 kg/ha) and medium in available sulphur (21.45 kg/ha). Treatment comprised three level of phosphorus viz. 20, 40, 60 kg/ha and three level of sulphur viz. 10, 20, 30 kg/ha along with absolute control (without P and S). The recommended dose of nitrogen (23 kg/ha) and potassium (20 kg/ha) were applied. All the dose of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur were applied at the time of sowing through urea, diammonium phosphate, muriate of potash and phospho-gypsum. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design (factorial) and replicated thrice. The greengram variety “HUM-16” was sown in row 30 cm apart using the seed rate of 25 kg/ha. the plant to plant distance of 10 cm was maintained by thinning 14 days after sowing. Before sowing the seed was treated with Rhizobium and PSB culture. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin was done @ 0.75 kg/ha for controlling the weed the the crop received two irrigations at 23 and 45 days after sowing. The soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur were analysed by the adopting the standard procedure. Data collected for various studies of greengram were analysed with the help of “analysis of variance” technique given by Gomez and Gomez (1984). The optimum dose of phosphorus and sulphur was worked out by using the regression equation.
Growth attributes

Application of 60 kg phosphorus/ha although recorded maximum plant height but was at par with 40 kg phosphorus/ha and both recorded significantly higher plant height than 20 kg phosphorus/ha. Similarly plant height recorded among 30 and 20 kg sulphur/ha being at par with and both recorded significantly higher plant height over 10 kg sulphur/ha. Both phosphorus and sulphur levels recorded significantly higher plant height over control (Table 1). Plant dry matter and crop growth rate increased significantly higher values at 60 kg phosphorus/ha. However, plant dry matter and crop growth rate increased significantly up to 20 kg sulphur/ha, further increase in sulphur levels fail to produce significant effect. Phosphorus and sulphur levels recorded significantly higher values of these indices than control. Higher values of these growth parameter on higher phosphorus and sulphur levels might be due to phosphorus estimates initial root improvement and growth, thus help in cell division and elongation. It also enhanced root proliferation and their development thereby enhancing uptake of nutrients and water from soil resulting in better plant growth of the plant.  Similar findings were also noticed by Kumawat et al., (2014) and Gajera et al., (2014). Sulphur helps to increase enzymatic activity of plant which accelerate the metabolic process result in great plant vigor, resulting more production of photosynthates and their accumulation in plants system these ultimately increase the growth indices. This similar result was recorded by Kumawat et al., (2014).

Table 1: Effect of phosphorus and sulphur levels on plant height, plant dry matter and crop growth rate.



Yield attributes

Phosphorus and sulphur levels recorded significantly higher number of pods/plant, pod length, grains/pod and test weight than control (Table 2). Application of 60 and 40 kg phosphorus was found at par with respect to number of pods/plant, pod length, grains/pod and test weight and both recorded significantly higher values than 20 kg phosphorus/ha. Similarly, these indices recorded at 30 and 20 kg sulphur being at par and both recorded significantly higher values of these parameter than 10 kg sulphur/ha. This might be because of raised to higher nutrient absorb and their move which had suitable effect on rate of photosynthesis and production of photosynthates. Efficient portioning of accumulated photosynthates, in turn contribute towards better development of yield indices. These results are supported by Singh et al., (2017b) and Das (2017) also recorded the similar result. Sulphur also increase the vegetative growth of plant through the synthesis and activation of many enzyme it also increased the photosynthesis and provide more photosynthates from source of sink resulting favorable increase in no. of pods per plant, length of pod, no. of grain per pod, 100 seed weight. The similar finding was recorded by Ram et al., (2013).

Table 2: Effect of phosphorus and sulphur levels on pods per plant, pod length, grains per pod and test weight.



Grain and straw yield

Phosphorus and sulphur levels significantly enhanced the grain and straw yield of summer greengram than control (Table 3). Application of 60 kg phosphorus/ha although produced higher grain and straw yields (914 and 1946 kg/ha, respectively) but was found at par with 40 kg phosphorus/ha (880 and 1882 kg/ha, respectively) and both recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield than 20 kg phosphorus/ha. Application of 30 kg sulphur/ha although produced higher grain and straw yields (920 and 1933 kg/ha, respectively) but was found at par with 20 kg sulphur/ha (879 and 1886 kg/ha, respectively) and both recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield than 10 kg sulphur/ha. Higher grain and straw yields at higher phosphorus and sulphur level might be due to the availability of plant nutrients in adequate proportion and in balanced quantity to the crop plant lead to improved crop growth and better expression of yield induced when consequently reflected to grain and stover yields. These results are supported by Das (2017) and Singh et al., (2019c). Sulphur is essential part in synchronize metabolic or enzymatic activity as well as respiration, photosynthesis or rhizobium legume cooperative nitrogen activity, these processes help to increase grain and straw, besides it is essential part of energy transformation, operate many enzymes and important in carbohydrate metabolism. Similar finding was recorded by Patel et al., (2013a), Singh et al., (2017a). Similar trend was also recorded in harvest index.

Table 3: Effect of phosphorus and sulphur levels on grain yield, straw yield and harvest index.



Nodulation

Number, fresh and dry weight of nodules increased with advancement of growth stages (Table 4). Number, fresh and dry weight of nodules/plant did not varied significantly among phosphorus, sulphur levels and control at 20 DAS. However, at 40 DAS, application of phosphorus and sulphur significantly enhanced the number, fresh and dry weight of nodules/plant than control. Among the phosphorus and sulphur levels, application of 60 kg phosphorus and 30 kg sulphur/ha  recorded significantly higher number, fresh and dry weight of nodules than 20 and 10 kg sulphur/ha and phosphorus respectively. Higher number, fresh and dry weight of nodules at higher phosphorus and sulphur dose might be due to higher dose of phosphorus increase in the proliferation of lateral and tap root system. Similar result was recorded by Rathour et al., (2015). Sulphur application increases nodulation by enhancing the contribution of sulphur hold proteins which are pivotal role for proliferation and growth of rhizobia. Similar finding was recorded by Patel et al., (2018b).

Table 4: Effect of phosphorus and sulphur levels on no. of nodule per plant, fresh and dry weight of nodule per plant.



Optimum dose of phosphorus and sulphur for summer greengram

The response of phosphorus and sulphur on grain yield of summer greengram was worked out to be quadratic. The grain yield of greengram enhanced with enhancing the level of phosphorus and sulphur up to certain levels of phosphorus and sulphur there after it decreased with increasing levels of phosphorus and sulphur. The optimum dose of phosphorus and sulphur for summer greengram was found to be 51.0 (Fig 1) and 24.5 (Fig 2) kg/ha respectively.

Fig 1: Effect of phosphorus on grain yield of summer greengram.



Fig 2: Effect of sulphur on grain yield of summer greengram.

Based on present finding of experiment it may concluded that application of phosphorus @ 60 kg/ha and sulphur @ 30 kg/ha may recommended to better growth and higher grain yield of summer greengram. Optimum dose of phosphorus and sulphur for summer greengram was 51 kg and 24.5 kg/ha, respectively.

  1. Anonymous, (2019a). Economic Survey, 2018-19, Government of India.

  2. Anonymous, (2019b). 3rd Advance Estimate, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare.

  3. Das, S.K. (2017). Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on yield attributes, yield, nodulation and nutrient uptake of green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Legume Research: An International Journal. 40(1): 138-143.

  4. Gajera, R.J., Khafi, H.R., Raj, A.D., Yadav, V. and Lad, A.N. (2014). Effect of phosphorus and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and economics of summer green gram. Agriculture Update. 9(1): 98-102.

  5. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research (2nd edition). A Wiley-inter Science Publication New York, USA.

  6. Kumawat, S.R., Khistriya, M.K., Yadav, S.L. and Kumar, M. (2014). Effect of sulphur and phosphorus on growth and yield attributes on summer green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 10(2): 770-773.

  7. Patel, A.K., Nath, T., Prajapati, A., Singh, V.K. and Pandey, S.K. (2018b). Effect of doses and sources of sulphur on growth and yield of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] under rainfed condition of Vindhyan Soil. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. SP1: 91-94.

  8. Patel, H.R., Patel, H.F., Maheriya, V.D. and Dodia, I.N. (2013a). Response of kharif greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] to sulphur and phosphorus fertilization with and without biofertilizer application. The Bioscan. 8(1): 149-152.

  9. Rakesh, K., Singh, Y.V., Surendra, S., Latare, A.M. and Mishra, P.K. (2012). Effect of phosphorus and sulphur nutrition on yield attributes, yield of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 4(5): 2571-2573.

  10. Ram, S. and Katiyar, T.P.S. (2013). Effect of sulphur and zinc on the seed yield and protein content of summer mungbean under arid climate. International Journal of Science and Nature. 4(3): 563-566.

  11. Rathour, D.K., Gupta, A.K., Choudhary, R.R. and Sadhu, A.C. (2015). Effect of integrated phosphorus management on growth, yield attributes and yield of summer green gram (Vigna radiata L.). The Bioscan. 10(1): 05-07.

  12. Singh, P., Yadav, K.K., Meena, F.S., Singh, B. and Singh, R. (2017a). Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on yield attributes, yield and nutrient uptake of mung bean in central plain zone of Punjab, India. Plant Archives. 17(2): 1756-1760.

  13. Singh, S.P., Kumar, Y. and Singh, S. (2017b). Effect of sources and levels of sulphur on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients in green gram (Vigna radiata). Annals of Plant and Soil Research. 19(2): 143-147.

  14. Singh, V., Sharma, S.K., Thakral, S.K. and Sharma, M.K. (2019c). Effect of phosphorus on the performance of greengram (Vigna radiata L) varieties during summer. Legume Research. 42(2): 247-249.

  15. Yadav, K.V., Singh, D.P., Sharma, S.K. and Kishor, K. (2017). Use of phosphorus for maximization of summer greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilszeck] productivity under sub humid condition of Rajasthan, India. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 6(4): 01-03.

Editorial Board

View all (0)