The studies on productivity of mungbean and pigeonpea in sole and intercropping systems (2: 1) under varying soil depths (viz., 15 cm, 15–30 cm and 30–45 cm) was conducted during 1992–95 in rainfed alfisol watershed. The results indicated that mungban and pigeonpea in sole and intercropping systems responded positively with increment in soil depth under rainfed environment. The seed yield of sole mungbean was higher by 79 and 132 per cent in 15–30 cm and 30–45 cm soil depth respectively over 15cm. Pigeonpea in sole system enhanced the seed yield by 232 and 502 kg/ha in soils having depth ranging 15–30 cm and 30–45 cm respectively compared to limited soil depth of 15 cm. Intercropping of mungbean and pigeonpea (2: 1) recorded higher murigbean seed equivalents, yield advantages and monetary returns, combined ‘N’ uptake and rainfaU use eficiencies compare to the respective sole crops at corresponding soil depths over the years.