The comparative study based on soil nutrient index and per cent soil samples falling in low, medium and high categories of organic carbon %, available P and K of soils of major Rice-wpeat cropping area of Haryana was carried out. The soil samples (31835) analysed during 1983–88, of Kamal, Kurukshetra and Ambala districts of Haryana, were compared with the soil samples (39528) analysed during 1988–93. The data showed that there was general decline in soil fertility: For example, the percentage of soil samples falling in low category of OC%, available P and K have gone up from 65 to 78%, 53 to 60% and 1 to 7% respectively during the period 1983–88 to 198893 in district Kamal. The corresponding figures for district Kurukshetra were 53–76%,57–65% and 2–27% respectively and that for Ambala district were 56–90%, 58–70% and 17–17% respectively. The total food grain (mainly rice and wheat) production of these districts increased during 1988–93 as compared to the 1983–88. At the same time cropped area also increased during this period and so did fertilizer consumption. The increase in fertilizer consumption was mainly contributed by the Nand P fertilizers where as consumption of K in fact declined. However, this increase in fertilizer consumption was not corresponding to the increasing food grain production and cropped area, therefore not meeting out the demand of crops for the nutrients. Thus resulting in the decline in the inherent soil fertility of these districts.