Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

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Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 56 issue 6 (december 2022) : 712-716

The Effects of Organic Fertilizer and Planting Type on Growth and Yield of Curcuma aromatica

Trinh Thi Ben1, Le Nguyen Tu Linh1, Tran Thi Linh Giang1, Vu Quang Dao1, Nguyen Thi Tu Oanh1, Luu Van Dang2, Bui Dinh Thach1,*
1Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam.
2DakNong Department of Science and Technology, Institute of Drug Quality Control, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Cite article:- Ben Thi Trinh, Linh Tu Nguyen Le, Giang Linh Thi Tran, Dao Quang Vu, Oanh Tu Thi Nguyen, Dang Van Luu, Thach Dinh Bui (2022). The Effects of Organic Fertilizer and Planting Type on Growth and Yield of Curcuma aromatica . Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 56(6): 712-716. doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-664.
Background: Curcuma aromatica Salisb is an important medicinal herb in Vietnam. It is exploited naturally, so its production is limited and in danger of extinction. Studying an organic farming model is a necessary orientation to exploit, conserve and provide quality raw materials.

Methods: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of surface coating types (A1: without coating, A2: straw coating and A3: polymer coating) and organic fertilizer amount (B1: 0; B1: 15, B2: 20, B3: 25 and B4: 30 ton ha-1) on growth and yield of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. The experiment was designed in a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The traits studied were: survival plant’s rate (%), leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm), number of leaves, fresh weight (g/plant), dry weight (g/plant), phenolic content/area (mg/20 m2), curcumol content/area (mg/20 m2).

Result: The results of the experiment revealed that surface coating types and organic fertilization and their interaction were significant in growth and yield of Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
Kasthuri turmeric (Curcuma aromatica Salisb.) belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is a medicinal and aromatic plant with multiple uses. Kasthuri turmeric has been used in Vietnam as a medicinal plant, with used Chest tightness, abdominal distention, Vomiting blood, nosebleeds, hematuria, chronic hepatitis, liver pain, jaundice, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, epilepsy.
Kasthuri turmeric was used as medicine in South East Asia, where have a lot species of curcuma genus. It is cultivated most extensively in India, followed by Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Philippines. Kasthuri turmeric was used in cosmetic produtions. Skin care is the major domain of application of this aromatic plant. Kasthuri turmeric is having anti-inflammatory, hypocholestraemic, choleratic, anti-microbial, insect repellent, anti-rheumatic, anti-fibrotic, anti-venomous, anti-diabetic, anti-viral, anti-hepatotoxic as well as anti-cancer properties in day to day domestic use as a folklore medicine from time immemorial. Kasthuri turmeric oil is used as aromatherapy and in the perfume industry. Many different active ingredients in the essential oil of kasthuri turmeric have been identified in the phenolic group: α-Pinene, β-Pinene, Limonene, 1,8-Cineole; p-Cymene, 2-Heptanol, Linalool oxide, 2-Nonanol, Camphor, Linalool, 4-Terpineol, β-Elemene, Caryophyllene, α-Humulene, α-Terpineol, α-Selinene, β-Selinene, δ-Cadinene, Caryphyllene oxide, Humulene oxide, ar-Turmerone, Curcumol, Dodecanoic acid (Kojima et al., 1998; Guo et al., 1980; Tsai et al., 2011). In which, the main components are curcumol (35.77%) and 1,8-cineole (12.22%) (Tsai et al., 2011). Curcumol is active against human lung cancer cells by arresting the G(2)/M phase, causing nuclear fragmentation and a rapid transfer of Bax from the cytosol into the mitochondria. While, caspases are not involved in curcumol-induced apoptosis (Tang et al., 2015). In addition, Curcumol is also beneficial for rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) cell division and PDGF-BB (platelet-derived growth factor)-stimulated DNA synthesis. -BB) through the depletion of Jak2 phosphorylation and downregulatory activities that bind STAT1 and STAT3 to DNA (Wang et al., 2012).
Considering the world demand for organic food, the improvement of soil health and productivity and the availability of local resources, the organic farming practice can be encouraged. Use of bio-fertilizers for crop production is gaining momentum as they are environmentally safe when compared to chemical fertilizers. Organic manures have beneficial effects on soil health and crop through of supporting microbial enhancing use fertilizer efficiently, soil fertility status and thus help in improving the yield and quality of crops. Therefore, Vietnam is also oriented to develop agricultural products cultivated according to organic methods.
The present research was conducted to evaluate the significance and combined effect of different surface coating types and Organic fertilizer amount on kasthuri turmeric towards the growth, yield and economic improvement of it.
Site description
The experiment was conducted during the 2018/2019 growing season in Cau Ngang, Tra Vinh, Viet Nam (9°48' 10" B 106°26'54" Đ). Cau Ngang experiences two seasons-rainy and dry. The rainy season runs from April through October, with temperature ranges from 22.6 to 34.6°C and rainfall that ranges from 66.8 to 96.6 mm in 2019. The dry season extends from November through March. The soil is classified as aerosols with height P (200 to 224 mg kg-1 soil). Agriculture in the area is intensified high inorganic fertilizer input. PH values ranging from 6.2 to 7.0. The C. aromatica Salisb. cultivar used was micropropogated and domesticated in a greenhouse for 4 months before planting.
Fertilizers used
Organic fertilizers were made up of composts produced from cow dung manures. The composting procedure as described by Ngakou et al., (2008) consisted of superposing wastes in layers to build piles comprising dry straws, manures and inoculum (waste degrading microorganisms). All piles not lower than 1.5 m in height were monitored by aerating or turning after every 2 weeks until all substrates within the pile were completely degraded to yield mature compost. The chemical components of organic fertilizers are presented in Cow compost (N: C: K= 0.442: 5.47: 5.40%; P: 206.5 µg/g).
Experimental design and treatments
Trials were performed following a randomized complete block (RCB) design; comprising fourteen treatments and twelve replicates formulated as follows:
The treatments consisted of four equidistant spacing between rows and between plants: 0.5×0.5 m; corresponding to densities of 40,000 plants ha-1, respectively. Each plot consisted of two rows with eight plants per row, totaling 80 plants per plot.
The experiment was designed in a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Each replication consists of six experimental units and the total number of experimental units was 18. The area of each experimental unit (plate size) was 4×5= 20 m2 and while the distance between the blocks was 1.5 m, the distance between the experimental unit was 1 m.
The study included two factors: 1- surface coating types (A) 2- Organic fertilizer amount (B). There are three surface coating types (without coating, straw coating and polymer coating) (A1, A2 and A3, respectively) for C. aromatica Salisb. and five different levels of organic fertilizer (0;15, 20, 25 and 30 ton ha-1) (B1; B2, B3 and B4, respectively).
Plants from the central two rows of each plot were harvested and measured. Some vegetative growth traits of C. aromatica Salisb. and yield were determined as: Survival plant’s rate (%), leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm), number of leaves, fresh weight (g/plant), dry weight (g/plant) after 6 months and phenolic (mg/gDW), curcumol (mg/g DW) after 9 months planting. The data were processed using ANOVA. The statistical tests were carried out using SPSS Statistics program. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. Differences between trait means were assessed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at P£0.05 levels and T-test was used at P≤0.05 to compare between the mean data of organic fertilizer application and plant density.

-  The survival rate of plants was assessed by recording dead and alive plants after every 6 months and 9 months.
The percentage of surviving plants were calculated using the formula:
-  The plant biomass were measured at 6 and 9 months after planting after drying of plants in an oven at 105° for 24 h.
-  Leaf area was identified by Model CI-202 (CID- USA).
Analytical methods conducted at the Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.
Total phenolic content
The total phenolic content of the extract was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (Kaur and Kapoor, 2002). Briefly, 200 μL of crude extract (1 mg/ml) were made up to 3 ml with distilled water, mixed thoroughly with 0.5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent for 3 min, followed by the addition of 2 ml of 20% (w/v) sodium carbonate. The mixture was allowed to stand for a further 60 min in the dark and absorbance was measured at 650 nm. The total phenolic content was calculated from the calibration curve and the results were expressed as mg of Gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight.
Curcumol content
Curcumol was identified by HPLC system consisted of a Agilent TC ODS column (4.6 mm × 15 cm, 5 μm) and DAD detecter at 210 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the mobile phase was composed of mobile phase A: acetonitrile-methanol-water-phosphoric acid (550:225:225:1) and mobile phase B:methanol as gradient mode (Cao et al., 2007) (Fig 1).

Fig 1: C. aromatica were experimentally planted after 6 (A) and 9 (B) months of planting.

In general, the results showed that the traits were significantly influenced by the interaction between factors (the interaction between surface coating types and organic fertilizer) on all traits of Kasthuri turmeric. Results of plant growth after 6 and 9 months of planting (Fig 2), recorded: there is a difference between the treatments with different fertilizer content and different growing patterns: Increase the amount of fertilizer to cover growth criteria (leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight) increased with (Table 1, 2) and get the highest value in condition A2B4 (straw coating - additions organic fertilizer 30 ton ha-1): plant height 333.00 cm, fresh weight: 295 g/plant, dry weight: 27.40 g/plant.

Fig 2: Curcumol content of C. aromatica root extract was identified by HPLC.

Table 1: Growth and development criteria of C. aromatica after 6 months of planting.

Table 2: Growth and development criteria of C. aromatica after 9 months of planting.


There is a difference in the content of phenolic and curcumol when changing the growing type and amount of organic fertilizers after 9 months of planting. The highest value was recorded in treatments 25-R (25 tons/ha-1 straw cabinet) showed the highest efficiency respectively: 2,63 (mg/20 m2) và 0,046 (mg/20 m2) (Table 2).
The organic fertilizer has significant effects on the all traits. Increasing of organic fertilizer led to the increase of all traits. Organic fertilizers are the sources of organic matter in the soil and important alternative to chemical fertilizers because they provide nutrients to the plant for a longer period, as well as increase soil productiveness by increasing the activity of soil microorganisms. These results are in accordance with the results of Belay et al., (2001), Murray and Anderson (2004) and Marlina et al., (2017). Application of organic fertilizers increased the growthing of plant recorded by Gadelrab and ELAmin (2013) in Allium cepa L. The highest number of leaves per plant was obtained by compost Elshomokh in week 15 in the first season (12 leaves per plant). Compost Elshomokh was followed by compost Alkhaseeb, compost Elkhyrat, Osarat Eltabya and the control respectively. The results on number of leaves per plant in the second season indicated that highest number of leaves per plant was obtained by compost Elshomokh (11 leaves per plant) in week 13, followed by compost Elkhyrat, compost Alkhaseeb, Osarat Eltabya and control respectively (Gadelrab and ELAmin, 2013).
Organic manure can serve as an alternative practice to mineral fertilizers (Wong et al., 1999; Naeem et al., 2006) for improving soil structure (Dauda et al., 2008) and microbial biomass (Suresh et al., 2004). Therefore, the utilization of locally produced manures by vegetable production operations may increase crop yields with less use of chemical fertilizer. The use of chemical fertilizers alone to sustain high crop yield has not been quite successful due to the enhancement of soil acidity, nutrient leaching, degradation of soil physical properties and organic matter status (Nottidge et al., 2005).
The analysis of variance showed that fertilizer content has significant effect caused by the increase of some growth traits except plant height and yield. The organic fertilizer (25 ton ha-1) has a positive effect on C. aromatic Salisb. Moreover, the effect of interaction between surface coating types and organic fertilizer led to the increase in the growth and yield of C. aromatic Salisb. Addition of organic fertilizer resulted in the release of more nutrients that resulted in number of leaves/plant. This agreed with the finding of Shams (2003) who found that the addition of organic manure improved vegetative growth of sweet pepper plants.
The change in natural conditions, along with unplanned forest exploitation, has led to ecological imbalance that degrades natural resources. In order to meet the increasing demand for medicinal herbs, it is necessary to develop a growing process to actively source raw materials. The study has determined the effect of organic fertilizers on the growth and quality of C. aromatic grown in Vietnam. Experiment results revealed that organic fertilizers and surface coating types affect plant growth and development of C. aromatic. Therefore, C. aromatic were growned in condition straw coating-additions organic fertilizer 20 ton ha-1 is the most suitable.
The authors are thankful to the national key laboratory for plant cell technology (Southern), Institute of Tropical Biology for providing necessary facilities. Grateful thanks to the Tra Vinh Department of Science and Technology for the financial assistance to the first author.

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