Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.60

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 55 issue 6 (december 2021) : 727-732

​Control Activity and Antibiotic Gene Detection of Endophytic Bacteria in Suppressing Cocoa Black Pod Disease (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.)

Rian Arini, Gusti Ayu Kade Sutariati, Andi Khaeruni, Teguh Wijayanto, Novita Pramahsari Putri, Tri Joko
1Department of Agricultural Science, Post Graduate Program of Halu Oleo University, Kendari Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Cite article:- Arini Rian, Sutariati Kade Ayu Gusti, Khaeruni Andi, Wijayanto Teguh, Putri Pramahsari Novita, Joko Tri (2021). ​Control Activity and Antibiotic Gene Detection of Endophytic Bacteria in Suppressing Cocoa Black Pod Disease (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 55(6): 727-732. doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-659.
Background: Black pod rot disease of cocoa caused by (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.) is one of the major diseases on cocoa plantations worldwide. Many attempts have been made to prevent or reduce the infection of pathogens, but they have not provided optimum results. This study aims to detect antibiotic genes in endophytic bacteria that can suppress cocoa black pod disease.
Methods: Eight endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy cocoa pods and twigs that showed potentials in suppressing P. palmivora growth in vitro were used in suppressing of black pod rot disease in vivo tests. Antibiotic biosynthesis-related genes from eight endophytic bacterial isolates were confirmed by using PCR method, which includes phenazine-1-carboxylic (PCA), pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine-1-carboxamide acid (PCN), pyoluteorin (PLT) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DPAG/Phl).
Result: The endophytic bacteria, 4RSI, 5BR B3 and 2RW B2 isolates showed the highest disease suppressing index to black pod rot disease in vivo, i.e., 70.27%, 70.08% and 56.64%. The isolates 5BR B3 and 2RW B2 DNA yielded PCR product by using PCA primers (1400 bp), PRN primers (700 bp) and DAPG primers (1600 bp), while the 5RSI isolate yield PCR product using PRN primers only. Endophytic bacterial isolates 5BRB3 and 2RW B2 provided partial disease suppression to pod rot disease by inhibit pathogen growth and antibiotic compounds production.

  1. Afzalab, I., Shinwaria, Z.K., Sikandar, S., Shahzadc, S. (2019). Plant beneficial endophytic bacteria: Mechanisms, diversity, host range and genetic determinants. Microbiological Research. 221: 34-49. 001.

  2. Arios, L.N., Suryanto, D., Nurtjahja, K., Munir, E. (2014). Assay on ability of endophytic bacteria isolated from peanut to inhibit Sclerotium sp. growth in peanut seedlings. J. HPT Tropika. 14(2): 178-186.

  3. AVRDC (Asian Vegetable Research Development Center). (2000). Phytophtora Blight. AVRDC Mycology.

  4. Azis, A.I., Rosmana, A., Dewi, V.S. (2013).  Control of Phytophthora leaf blight disease on cacao seedling using Trichoderma asperellum. Journal Fitopatologi Indonesia. 9(1): 15-20.  doi: 10.14692/jfi.9.1.15.

  5. Bakthavatchalu, S., Shivakumar, S., dan S.B. Sullia. (2013). Molecular detection of antibiotic related gened from Pseudomonas aeruginosa FP6, an antagonist towards Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Turkish Journal of Biology. 37: 289-295.

  6. Bowers, J.H., Bailey, B.A., Hebbar, P.K., Sanogo, S., Lumsden, R.D. (2001). The impact of plant disease on world chocolate production. Plant Health Progress. doi: 10.1094/PHP- 2001-0709-01-RV.

  7. Buana, R.F.N., Wahyudi, A.T. and Mathius, N.T. (2014). Control activity of potential antifungal-producing Burkholderia sp. in suppressing Ganoderma boninense growth in oil palm Asian Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(5): 259-268. 

  8. Chernin, L., Brandis, A., Ismailov, Z., ChetI. (1996). Pyrrolnitrin production by an Enterobacter agglomerans strain with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity towards fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. Current Microbiology. 32: 208-212.

  9. Gao, F.K., Dai, C.C., Liu, X.Z. (2010). Mechanisms of fungal endophytes in plant protection against pathogens. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 4(13): 1346-1351.

  10. Gues, D. (2007). Blackpod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology. 97: 1650-1653.

  11. Habazar, T., Resti, Z., Yanti, Y., Sutoyo, Imelda. (2015). Formulation of bacterial endophytes from soybean root to control bacterial pustule. Journal of Indoesian Fitopatology. 11(2): 51-58. doi:10.14692/jfi.11.2.51.

  12. Hamzah, A., Zubir, I., Ross, EER, Aqma, W.S. (2017). Antagonistic effect and plant growth hormone produced by endophyte Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LKM-UL Isolated from Cocoa Plant. International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. 7(3): 169-176. doi: 10.17706/ijbbb. 2017.7.3.169-176.

  13. Kandel, S.L., Joubert, P.M. and Doty, S.L. (2017). Bacterial endophyte colonization and distribution within plants. Microorganisms. 5(77): 1-26. doi: 10.3390/microrganisms5040077.

  14. Khaeruni, A., Johan, E.A., Wijayanto, T., Taufik, M., Syafar, A.A.R., Sutariati, G.A.K. (2018). Induction of soybean resistance to bacterial pustule disease (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines) by rhizobacteria and organic material treatment. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci.122.012052. doi: 10.  1088/1755-1315/122/1/012052.

  15. Khaeruni, A., Wijayanto, T., Darmansyah, Arini, R., Sutariati, G.A.K. (2019a). Antagonistic activity of indigenous endophytic bacteria from cocoa plants against Phytophthora palmivora Bult the cause of black pod rot disease in cocoa. Bioscience Research. 16(1): 272-280.

  16. Khaeruni, A., Zulkifli, M., Wijayanto, T. Sutariati, G.A.K., Bande, L.O.S., Arini, R. (2019b). In vitro test of endophytic antagonist activity for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causal agent of antracnose in cocoa. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 260: 012136. doi:10.1088/ 1755-1315/260/1/012136.

  17. Kirner, S., Hammer, P.E., Hill, D.S., Altman, A., Fischer, I. (1998). Functions encoded by pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Bacteriol. 180: 1939-1943.

  18. Kloepper, J.W. and Ryu, C.M. (2006). Bacterial endophytes as elicitors of induced systemic resistance. In: [Schulz, B.J.E, Boyle, C.J.C. and Sieber, T.N., Eds.], microbial root endophytes, Springer, Berlin. 33-52.

  19. Marwan, H., Sinaga, M.S., Giyanto and Nawangsih, A.A. (2011). Isolation and selection of endophytic bacteria to control blood disease on banana. Journal of Tropical Plant Pests and Disease. 11(2): 113-21.

  20. Melnick, R.L., Zidack, N.K., Bailey, B.A., Maxinmova, S.N., Guiltinan, M., Backman, P.A. (2008). Bacterial endophytes: Bacillus spp. from annual crops as potential biological control agents of black pod rot of cacao. Biological Control. 46(1): 46-56.

  21. Miliute, I., Buzaite, O., Baniulis, D., Stanys, V., (2015). Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops and their role in stress tolerance: A Review. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture. 102(4): 465-478. doi: 10.13080/z-a.2015.102.060.

  22. Munif, A., Hallmann, J., Sikora, R.A. (2013). The influence of endophytic bacteria on Meloidogyne incognita infection and tomato plant growth. J. ISSAAS. 19 (2): 68-74.

  23. Nguyen, A.H., Wijayanto, T., Erskine, W., Barker, S.J. (2016). Using green fluorescent protein sheds light on Lupinus angustifolius L. transgenic shoot development. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 127(3): 665-674.

  24. Ramli, N.S., Mohamed, M.S., Seman, I.A., Zairun, M.A., Mohamad, N. (2016). The Potential of endophytic bacteria as a biological control agent for Ganoderma disease in oil palm. Sains Malaysiana. 45(3): 401-409.

  25. Rubiyo, Amaria W. (2013). Resistance of Cocoa to black pod disease (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.). Perspektif. 12(1): 23-36.

  26. Schaad, N.W., Jones, J.B. and Chun, W. (2001). Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Minnesota: APS Press. 

  27. Suniti, N.W. (2015). The potential of endophytic bacteria from shoot of healthy vanilla for biological control agents of Fuxarium oxusporum f. sp. vanilla. J. Agrotrop. 5(1): 64-70.

  28. Tondok, E.T., Sinaga, M.S., Widodo, Suhartono, M.T. (2012). Potency of endophytic fungi as biocontrol agent of cacao black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. J. Agronomi. Indonesia. 40 (2): 146-152. 

  29. Wijayanto, T., Khaeruni, Andi, Tufaila, M., Muhidin, Faat, D. (2017). The effectiveness of a biotechnological-based fertilizer “Biofresh” in combination with organic matters on soybean health and production. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 8 (2).

  30. Wiratno, Syakir, M., Sucipto, I., Pradana, A.P. (2019). Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from roots of Piper nigrum and their activities against Fusarium oxysporum and Meloidogyne incognita. Biodiversitas. 20(3): 682-687.

  31. Zubir, I., Ross, E.E.R., Hamzah, A., Aqma, W.S. (2019). Endophytic bacteria with antagonistic activities against pathogenic fungal Oncobacidium theobromae of Cocoa. Bioscience Research. 16(1): 648-657.

Editorial Board

View all (0)