Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

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Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Levels on Soybean and its Residual Effect on Production Efficiency and Economic Efficiency under Soybean-Onion and Soybean-Potato Cropping System

S.S. Patil1,*, S.D. Hiwale2, R.S. Shinde3, K.R. Yadav4, S.R. Patil4
1Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture,Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144 411, Punjab, India.
2Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola-444104, Maharashtra, India.
3Department of Agronomy, RNZ Argotech. Ltd. Abu Dhabi, UAE.
4Department of Agronomy, BVs L.M.K College of Agriculture, Kadegaon-415 304, Maharashtra, India.
Background: Inclusion of high value vegetable crops like onion and potato in soybean based crop sequence may help to improve the productivity and profitability on sustainable basis. Nutrient management and cropping sequence are two important factors which affect productivity and profitability of crop. As such, information on soybean followed by onion and potato is lacking and it will be very useful for exploring the productivity and profitability of soybean followed by high value vegetable crop sequence. 

Methods: The data pertaining to growth characteristics, yield characteristics, gross monetary returns and net monetary returns of Soybean ( kharif ) and Onion or Potato (rabi ) was collected at regular interval in 2017-18, 2018-19 at Agronomy Farm, Dr. PDKV, Akola which was analyzed statistically in RBD (Randomized Block Design) and SPD (Split Plot Design).
 
Result: S1- soybean-onion recorded more production efficiency than S2- soybean-potato. S1- soybean-onion reported greater economic efficiency than S2- soybean-potato. Soybean crop supplied with IN3 (100% RDN applied with FYM@ 5 t per ha and biofertilizer) registered highest production efficiency and economic efficiency than IN1 ( 50% RDN applied with FYM5 t per ha and biofertilizer) to soybean and found at par with IN2 (75% RDN applied with FYM5 t per ha and biofertilizer) to soybean. Rabi crop (onion/potato) supplied with F3  (125% RDF) level registered significantly greater production and economic efficiency than lower levels of recommended dose nutrient.
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is grown in India as one most important oilseed and legume crop. Soybean crop belongs to family Leguminoceae. Soybean originated from country China. Soybean seed contains oil (20%) and protein (40%). Soybean is known as vegetarian meat, because it is important source of protein to vegetarian population of the country. In India, soybean crop is cultivated on 12.81 (million hectares) area with 12.90 (million tonnes) production and 1007 kg/ha productivity. In Maharashtra, soybean crop is cultivated on 4.36 (million hectares) area with 6.20 (million tonnes) production and 1423 kg/ha productivity (Anonymous, 2020).
       
Onion (Allium cepa L.) belongs to family Amaryllidaceae. The most economical part of onion is the bulb onion. In addition to this, bulb of onion is used for preparation of value added products like onion powder and onion flakes. A volatile compound allyl propyl disulphide gives pungency to onion. Onion has its own nutritional and medicinal properties. Onion is source of flavonoids which decrease risk of heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Flavonoids have anti-cancer, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-allergic properties. In India, onion crop is cultivated on 1638.58 (‘000 hectares) area with 26830.27 (‘000 tonnes) production and 16374 kg/ha productivity. In Maharashtra, onion crop is cultivated on 703.80 ‘000 hectares) area with 10476.46 (‘000 tonnes) production and 14886 kg/ha productivity (Anonymous, 2020).
       
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) belongs to family solanaceae and originated from South America. It is important food crops both in India as well as world. Potato acts as a low cost energy source to diet of people. Potato is popular as ‘poor man’s food’ because of its supplying high nutrition, low cost energy source to people of different of economic classes. It contains 2.1% of protein, 20.6% Carbohydrate, 2% Sugar, 1.1% crude fibre and 0.3% fat. The most important economical part of potato is the tuber of potato. Tuber of potato is a modified stem developed underground on stolon. It is consumed in various forms of vegetable ingredient in different cooked dishes. In addition to this, tuber of potato is used for preparation of value added products like potato powder and potato flakes. Potato has important value in food industries due to its utilization in synthesis of dextrin and starch. In India, potato crop is cultivated on 2248.07 (‘000 hectares) area with 54229.74 (‘000 tonnes) production and 24123 kg/ha productivity (Anonymous, 2020).
       
Melkamu Jate and Joachim Lammel (2022) reported that balanced nutrient management with integrated principles of plant nutrition is the one of the best nutrient management strategies to enhance crop production without decrease in the soil fertility. Nutrient management is one of the important management factor which affects productivity and profitability of crop hence it is included in present investigation. Agronomic crop is combined with the high daily used vegetable crop to check feasibility of combination to increase the productivity and profitability of crop sequence.
The present experiment was carried out in 2017-18 and 2018-19 at research farm of Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV,  Akola (MS). The seeds of soybean were inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum @ 250 g 10 kg-1, PSB @ 250 g 10 kg-1 and Tricoderma viridi @ 250 g 10 kg-1 before sowing. The data pertaining to growth characteristics, yield characteristics, gross monetary returns, net monetary returns and B: C ratio of Soybean in (kharif ) and Onion or Potato crops (rabi) was collected at regular intervals which was analyzed statistically in RBD (Randomized Block Design) and SPD (Split plot design). Treatment details given in Table 1.
 

Table 1: Treatment details.


 
Production efficiency
 
Production efficiency was calculated by the following formula,
 
 

SEY- Soybean equivalent yield.
 
Economic efficiency
 
Economic efficiency was calculated by the following formula,
 
 

NMR- Net monetary returns.
Production efficiency (kg/day/ha) and economic efficiency (Rs./day/ha)
 
The data pertaining to production efficiency (kg ha-1 day-1) and economic efficiency (Rs. ha-1 day-1) of the cropping system during both the years are presented in Table 2, 3 and 4. The mean production efficiency (kg ha-1 day-1) were 43.30, 41.18, 42.29 and economic efficiency (Rs. ha-1 day-1) were 1122, 1231, 1177 during first year, second year and on pooled mean basis, respectively.
 

Table 2: Production efficiency (kg /day/ha) and Economic efficiency (Rs./day / ha) as influenced by integrated nutrient management to oybean (kharif ) and recommended fertilizer levels to onion and potato (rabi).


 

Table 3: Response of production efficiency (kg/ day/ha) under soybean based cropping system to interaction effect between integrated nutrient management to soybean (kharif) and recommended dose of fertilizer levels to onion and potato (rabi).


 

Table 4: Response of economic efficiency (Rs./day/ha) under soybean based cropping system to interaction effect between integrated nutrient management to soybean (kharif) and recommended dose of fertilizer levels to onion and potato (rabi).


 
Crop sequences
 
The data in Table 1 show that Soybean-onion (CS1) recorded significantly more economic efficiency and production efficiency than soybean-potato (CS2) in first year of research. This might be due to higher yield of onion than potato in soybean based cropping sequence. Similar results were reported by Pacharne (2014) and Thorat et al., (2018).
 
Integrated nutrient management levels  to  soybean (kharif)
 
Soybean crop supplied with IN3 (100% RDN applied with FYM@ 5 t per ha and biofertilizer) and IN2 (75% RDN applied with FYM@ 5 t per ha and biofertilizer) both being at par with each other registered significantly higher production efficiency and economic efficiency than IN1 (50% RDF applied with FYM@ 5 t per ha+ biofertilizer (Table 2). This might be due to rapid release of nutrients through inorganic sources of nutrient during early phase of growth and development of soybean and gradual release of nutrients during later phase of growth and development of soybean by the organic sources. In addition to that seed of soybean treated with biofertilizer which help to fix atmospheric nitrogen and solublize insoluble phosphorus in soil. Similar results were recorded by Thimmegowda (2006) and Thorat et al., (2018).
 
Recommended dose of fertilizer levels to onion and potato (rabi)
 
The application of 125 % RDF (F3) level to rabi crop recorded significantly higher production efficiency and economic efficiency than lower levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (Table 2). This might be due to residual effect of integrated nutrient management levels applied to kharif crop enhanced the nutrient uptake and yield potential of rabi crops. These results were similar findings of Gaud (2004), Gudhade (2008), Senthivelu et al., (2009), Shanwad et al., (2010), Subehia and Sepehya (2012), Thorat et al., (2018).
 
Interaction
 
Production efficiency (kg/day/ha) and Economic efficiency (Rs./day/ ha)
 
The data presented in Table 3 and 4 indicate that soybean crop supplied with IN3 and rabi crops (onion and potato) supplied with F3 registered highest production economic efficiency over other treatments except combination of IN2 to soybean and F2 to rabi crops(onion and potato).
Soil application of 75% RDN applied with FYM@ 5 t per ha, seed treatment of biofertilizer to soybean and soil application of 100% RDF to rabi onion secured higher production as well as economic efficiency in soybean based cropping sequence.
None.

  1. Anonymous, (2020). (https://eands.dacnet.nic.in).

  2. Gaud, V.V., (2004). Production potential and economic feasibiity of  rice based cropping system under integrated nutrient management. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to Navsari  Agriculture Universaity, Navasri.

  3. Gudadhe, N.N., (2008). Effect of integrated nutrient management system in cotton-chickpea cropping sequence under irrigated conditions. Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri (Maharashtra).

  4. Jate, M. and Lammel, J. (2022). Effect of balanced and integrated crop nutrition on sustainable crop production in a classical long-term trial. Sustainable Crop Production-Recent Advances. (1-26) http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.102682.

  5. Pacharne, D.P. (2014). Nutrient management and its residual effect on yield potential of groundnut based diversified cropping system. Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri (Maharashtra). 

  6. Senthivelu, M., Padian, B.J. and Surya P.A., (2009). Dry matter production and nutrient removal in wet seeded rice-cotton cropping sequence under irrigated nutrient management practices. Oryza, 46 (4) : 279-289.

  7. Shanwad, U.K., Kumar, B.A., Hulihali, U.K., Survenshi, A., Reddy, M. and Jalageri, B.R. (2010). Integrated nutrient management in maize- bengal gram cropping system in Northen Karnataka. Research Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 1(3): 252-254.

  8. Subehia, S.K. and Sepehya, S., (2012). Influence of long-term nitrogen substitution through organic on yield uptake and available nutrients in rice-wheat system in acidic soil. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 60(3): 213-217. 

  9. Thimmegowda, S. (2006). Effect of residual fertility and direct fertilization on kernel, protein and oil yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in rice fallows. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 61(4): 385-387.

  10. Thorat, S. (2018). Response of nutrient management on productivity and profitability of soybean based cropping systems. Ph.D. Agri. Thesis, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri (Maharastra) India.

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