Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.20

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 55 issue 5 (october 2021) : 542-548

Bed Planting Techniques Improved Crop Yield by Efficient use of Added Nitrogen Fertilizer

Abdul Majeed, Abid Niaz, Aysha Sameen, Hafiz Basheer Ahmad, Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Aftab, Muhammad Arif
1Sugarcane Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Cite article:- Majeed Abdul, Niaz Abid, Sameen Aysha, Ahmad Basheer Hafiz, Younus Muhammad, Aftab Muhammad, Arif Muhammad (2021). Bed Planting Techniques Improved Crop Yield by Efficient use of Added Nitrogen Fertilizer. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 55(5): 542-548. doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-599.
Background: Nitrogen fertilizer is imperative for rice and wheat growth and dry matter yield as compare to other macronutrients. Nitrogen is also added in high amount in every one of rice and wheat cultivation method. Effective uptake of added nitrogen by crops from soil supports in increasing crop growth and dry matter yield. Best N fertilizer utilization is indispensable for improving crop growth and to decrease environmental pollution. 
Methods: A comparison of the utility of nitrogen fertilizer usage by plants in wheat and rice crops grown on beds and flat land was planned in the current investigation. Beds were manufactured with bed planter machine. The plant samples were collected, dried and digested with acid for mineral nutrients analysis after harvesting the crops.
Result: The results showed that the addition of N fertilizer (80 kg / ha) to the bed produced at par yield (4.51 t / ha) as obtained by an addition of 120 kg N / ha in flat sowing. Planting of rice on bed plus furrow and adding N (100 kg / ha) to the prescribed dosage of N (150 kg / ha) in flat sowing produced at par yield. It concludes that by planting crops on beds without loss in yield, higher use of N fertilizer in crops can be minimized. Thus, bed planting strategies effectively and indirectly minimize nitrous oxide emissions from applied nitrogen fertilizers in wheat and rice crop fields through increasing the usage of added N fertilizer through plants.
  1. Ahlawat Savita and Kaur Dhian. (2015). Climate change and food production in North West India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 49: 544-548.
  2. Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M and Rowland, P. (1986). Chemical analysis. In: Moore, P.D., Chapman, S.B. (Eds.), Methods in Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 303-316. 
  3. Bond, J.A., Walker, T.W., Ottis, B.V. and Harrell, D.L. (2008). Rice seeding and nitrogen rate effects on yield and yield components of two rice cultivars. Agron. Journal. 100: 393-397.
  4. Bouyoucos, (1962). Hydrometer method for making particle analysis of soil. Journal of Agronomy. 54: 464-465.
  5. Chaudhuary, P., Chudhury, S.R., Das, A., Mandal, J., Ghosh, M., Acharya, S. and Homa, F. (2020). Productivity, Profitability and Greenhouse Gas Emission from Rice Wheat Cropping System under Different Tillage and Nitrogen Management Practices. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 54(3): 285-292.
  6. Farooq, M.N., Kobayashi, A., Wahid, O.I. and Basra, S.M.A. (2009). Strategies for producing more rice with less water. Advanced Agronomy. 101: 351-388.
  7. Hassan, I., Hussain, Z. and Akbar, G. (2005). Effect of permanent raised beds on water productivity for irrigated maize-wheat cropping system. Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceeding 121, of a workshop on Evaluation and performance of permanent raised bed cropping systems in Asia, Australia and Mexico. 1-3 March, 2005, Grifith, NSW, Australia.
  8. Hobbs, P.R. and Gupta, R.K. (2003). Resource-conserving technologies for wheat in the rice-wheat system. In Improving productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat systems: Issues and impact, American society of Agronomy Special Publication. vol. 65: 149-217.
  9. IPCC, 2013. Climate Change (2013). The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, UK.
  10. Iqbal, M., Akhtar, M., Mohammad, J., Shah, W., Nawaz, S.M. and Mahmood, K. (2005). Effect of tillage and fertilizer levels on wheat yield, nitrogen uptake and their correlation with carbon isotope discrimination under rain fed conditions in north-west Pakistan. Soil and Tillage Res. 80 47-57.
  11. Ishaq, M., Ibrahim, M., Hassan, A., Saeed, M and Lal, R. (2001). Subsoil compaction effects on crops in Punjab, Pakistan II: root growth and nutrient uptake of wheat and sorghum. Soil Till. Res. 60: 153-161.
  12. Jackson, M.L. (1962). Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall: Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. U.S.A.
  13. Ju, X.T., Xing, G.X., Chen, X.P., Zhang, S.L., Zhang, L.J., Liu, X.J., Cui, Z.L., Yin, B., Christie, P. and Zhu, Z.L. (2009). Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106: 3041-3046.
  14. Kukal, S.S. and Aggarwal, G.C. (2003). Puddling depth and intensity effects in rice-wheat system on a sandy loam soil I: development of subsurface compaction. Soil Till. Res. 72: 1-8.
  15. Li, D., Liu, M., Cheng, Y., Wang, D., Qin, J., Jiao, J., Li, H., Hu, F. (2011). Methane emissions from double-rice cropping system under conventional and no tillage in southeast China. Soil Till. Res. 113: 77-81. 
  16. Liang, X., Li, H., Wang, S., Ye, Y., Ji, Y., Tian, G., Van Kessel, C. and Linquist, B. (2013). Nitrogen management to reduce yield-scaled global warming potential in rice. Field Crops Res. 146: 66-74.
  17. Jat, M.L., Gupta, R., Saharawat, Y.S. and Khosla, R. (2011). Layering precision land leveling and furrow irrigated raised bed planting: productivity and input use efficiency of irrigated bread wheat in indo-gangetic plains, Am. J. Plant Sci. 2: 578-588.
  18. Majeed, A., Muhmood, A., Niaz, A., Javid, S., Ahmad, Z.A., Shah, S.S.H. and Shah, A.H. (2015). Bed planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improves nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield compared to flat planting. The crop journal. 3: 18-124.
  19. Majeed, A., Niaz, A., Muhmood, A., Ahmad, Z.A., Ilyas, M. and Wakeel, A. (2017). Nitrogen use efficiency, water saving and yield of rice transplanting on raised bed over traditional flat method. J. Plant Nutrition. DOI:10.1080/01904167. 2016.1240190.
  20. Majumdar, D. (2003). Methane and nitrous oxide emission from irrigated rice fields: proposed mitigation strategies. Curr. Sci. 84: 1317-1326.
  21. Mollah, M.I.U., Bhuiya, M.S.U. and Kabir, M.H. (2009). Bed Planting, A New Crop Establishment Method for Wheat in Rice-Wheat Cropping System. J. of Agri. and Rural Develop. 7: 23-31.
  22. Naresh, R.K., Tomar, S.S., Kumar, D. Samsher, Purushottam, Singh, S.P., Dwivedi, A. and Kumar, V. (2014). Experiences with Rice Grown on Permanent Raised Beds, Effect of Crop Establishment Techniques on Water Use, Productivity, Profitability and Soil Physical Properties. Rice Science. 21: 170-180.
  23. Nelson, D.W. and Sommers, L.E. (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2: chemical and Microbiological Properties, ed. Klute A, pp. 570-571. Am. Soc. Agron, Madison WI.
  24. Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S. and Dean, L.A., (1954). Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. USDA. Circular/United States Department of Agriculture, Washington no. 939.
  25. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeny, D.R. (1982). Methods of soil analysis (Part 2). Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy 9. SSSA, Madison. 
  26. Rowell, D.L. (1994). Soil Science. Methods and Application. Longman Scientific and Technical, UK. 
  27. Ryan, P., Delhaize, E. and Jones, D. (2001). Function and mechanisms of organic anion exudation from plant roots. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52: 527-560. 
  28. R.G.D. Steel, Torrie, J.H. and Dickey, D.A. (1997). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: a Biometrical Approach, 3rd edition McGraw Hill Co., New York, USA.
  29. Yadvinder, S., Humphreys, E., Kukal, S.S, Singh, B., Amanpreet, K., Thaman, S., Prashar,A., Yadav, S., Timsina, J., Dhillon, S.S., Kaur, N., Smith, D.J. and Gajri, P.R. (2009). Crop performance in permanent raised bed rice-wheat cropping system in Punjab, India. 
  30. Snyder, C.S., Bruulsema, T.W., Jensen, T.L. and Fixen, P.E. (2009). Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 133: 247-266.
  31. Singh Avtar and Kumar Rajneesh. (2014). Tillage with crop residue and nitrogen to enhance the productivity of direct seeded rice. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 48: 222-226.
  32. US Salinity Laboratory Staff. (1954). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. USDA Handbook 60. USDA, Washington, DC. 
  33. Wightman, J.L., Duxbury, J.M. and Woodbury, P.B. (2015). Land Quality and Management Practices Strongly Affect Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Bioenergy Feed stocks. Bio-Energy Research. 8: 1681-1690.
  34. Xing, G.X. and Zhu, Z.L. (2000). An assessment of N loss from agricultural fields to the environment in China, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 57: 67-73.
  35. Zou, J., Huang, Y., Jiang, J., Zheng, X. and Sass, R.L. (2005). A 3-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in China: effects of water regime, crop residue and fertilizer application. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles. 19: 153-174.

Editorial Board

View all (0)