Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

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Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 56 issue 3 (june 2022) : 368-372

Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Content of Common Bean Varieties Grown in Tabasco, Mexico

F. Florvil1, C. Márquez-Quiroz1,*, E. de-la-Cruz-Lázaro1, R. Osorio-Osorio1, E. Sánchez-Chávez2
1Maestría en Ciencias Agroalimentarias, División Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabaco. Km. 25. Carretera Villahermosa-Teapa. CP. 86290. Centro, Tabasco, México.
2Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, Unidad Delicias. Av. Cuarta Sur, CP. 33089, Fracc. Vencedores del Desierto, Ciudad Delicias, Chihuahua, México.
Cite article:- Florvil F., Márquez-Quiroz C., de-la-Cruz-Lázaro E., Osorio-Osorio R., Sánchez-Chávez E. (2022). Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Content of Common Bean Varieties Grown in Tabasco, Mexico . Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 56(3): 368-372. doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-587.
Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important legume for its nutritional value and health benefits in Mexico. In this research mineral content, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of 18 bean collections were analyzed. Different grain beans were collected in rural communities in 12 municipalities of the state of Tabasco, Mexico and carried out from March to June 2018. They were analyzed for mineral content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Ni), proximal bromatological analysis (ash, crude fat, crude fiber and protein), phenolic compounds content (total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant activity. The contents of zinc were low in all bean collections; additionally, collections C104, C109 and C113 recorded the highest concentration of total phenols (55.45 mg GA g-1), flavonoids (1.46 mg CE g-1) and anthocyanins (2.87 mg C3G g-1) and antioxidant capacity (91.05%) respectively. This study has shown that common bean varieties grown in the state of Tabasco have high biological and antioxidant potential that could be beneficial to human health when consumed as nutraceutical foods.
The common bean is the most important legume and the fourth source of protein in America (Alcazar-Valle et al., 2020). There are about 52 known species of Phaseolus beans in Mexico, which are distributed in seven main groups (black, yellow, white, purple, cream, pinto and mottled) (Chavez-Mendoza et al., 2019). The seed coat contains antioxidants, flavonoids and anthocyanins, among other bioactive compounds, which have beneficial anti-cancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, antiproliferative, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and antithrombotic properties (Corzo-Ríos et al., 2020). High concentrations of bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids and anthocyanins, have biological activity. However, they can vary between color bean grains (Chavez-Mendoza et al., 2019).
       
In general, there is little literature on bioactive compounds content of the common bean produced in the humid tropics and the results obtained from other studies are mainly focused on the characterization of beans produced in Western and Central Mexico, therefore, this work aimed to determine mineral content, proximate composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of common beans grown in the state of Tabasco.
       
Different grain beans were collected in rural communities in 12 municipalities of the state of Tabasco, Mexico and carried out from March to June 2018 (Table 1). The nitrogen (N) content was determined with the Flash 2000 elemental analyzer (Thermo Scientific) (Reussi-Calvo et al., 2008). Phosphorus (P) content was determined by the ammonium metavanadate method. calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) were determined using the tri-acid mixture method and the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method (Jones et al., 1991).
 

Table 1: Common beans collected in the state of Tabasco, Mexico.


       
Ash content was determined according to the Mexican Standard (NORMEX 2002). Fat levels were determined using the Goldfish method (AOAC 2002) and the percentage of fat was determined according to the Mexican Standard (NORMEX 2006). Crude fiber was determined according to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM 1978). Total phenols were determined using the Singleton and Rossi method (1965). Results for total phenols were expressed in mg of gallic acid per gram of sample (mg GA g-1 extract). Flavonoid content was determined using the method described by Zhishen et al., (1999). The results are shown in mg catechin equivalents per gram per sample (mg CE g-1). The differential pH method described by Wrolstad (1993) was used to determine the anthocyanin content. The results are shown in mg Cyanidin-3-glucoside per gram of sample (mg C3G g-1 flour). Antioxidant capacity was determined using the method described by Brand-Williams et al., (1995) with the DPPH free-radical. Antioxidant capacity is reported in percentages (%). The data were subjected to an analysis of variance. The 95% Tukey’s test was used to determine the difference between treatment means.
 
Proximal bromatological analysis
 
According to analysis of variance, there was a significant difference between the bean collections in terms of their ash, fats, fiber and protein content (p<0.05). Ash content ranged from 4.17 to 5.02%, fat content ranged from 1.15 to 1.90%, whereas, crude fiber content ranged from 1.75 to 2.93%. Finally, crude protein content ranged from 19.90 to 26.54% (Table 2). Our results are consistent with another research, where it was observed that ash, fat, crude fiber and protein content ranged from 2.53 to 4.36% (Fernández-Valenciano and Sánchez-Chávez 2017), 0.48 to 2.23% (Pliego-Marín et al., 2013), 1.40 to 3.21% (Armendáriz-Fernández et al., 2019) and 14 to 33% (Alcazar-Valle et al., 2020) respectively. The protein content in P. vulgaris depends on the type of bean, fertilizer use, agricultural practices and soil-climate characteristics of cultivation sites (Alcazar-Valle et al., 2020).
 

Table 2: Proximate composition of bean grains collected in Tabasco, Mexico.


 
Mineral content
 
There was a significant difference between the bean collections in terms of their N, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni content (p<0.05). The N content ranged from 3.66 to 4.88%. The P content ranged from 0.08 to 0.18%, while the content of K, Ca and Mg ranged from 0.88 to 1.54%, from 0.0003 to 0.051% and from 0.010 to 0.016% respectively (Table 3). On the other hand, Fe content ranged from 60.14 to 81.95 mg kg-1, while Zn content ranged from 25.10 to 43.34 mg kg-1, Cu content ranged from 10.10 to 15.58 mg kg-1, Mn content ranged from 6.11 to 16.53 mg kg-1 and Ni content ranged from 1.02 to 1.61 mg kg-1. Our results are consistent with another research, where it was observed that N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni content ranged from 2.75 to 4.75% (Sánchez et al., 2018), 0.01 to 0.17%, 0.33 to 1.05% (Armendáriz-Fernández et al., 2019), 0.08 to 1.42%, 0.03 to 0.11% (Espinoza-García et al., 2016), 21.61 to 105.29 mg kg-1, 6.74 to 48.18 mg kg-1, 8.34 to 13.24 mg kg-1 (Armendáriz-Fernández et al., 2019), 5.41 to 38.54 mg kg-1 and 2.03 to 10.4 mg kg-1 (Espinoza-García et al., 2016) respectively. Legume seeds provide 15 essential minerals required by humans, beans can provide 20% of the adult requirement for P, Mg and Ca (Sánchez-Chino et al., 2015), whereas, Fe is a constituent of a number of important macromolecules (Briat 2011). Finally, Zn is an essential component of various dehydrogenases, proteases and peptidases (Fageria and Baligar 2005).
 

Table 3: Macro and microelement content of common bean collected in Tabasco, Mexico.


 
Content of bioactive compounds
 
There was a significant difference between the bean collections in terms of their total phenols concentration, flavonoid content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). The total phenols concentration ranged from 3.88 to 55.45 mg GA g-1 flour, flavonoid content ranged from 0.22 to 1.46 mg CE g-1 flour, whereas, anthocyanin content ranged from 0.51 to 2.87 mg C3G g-1. Finally, the antioxidant activity ranged from 74.00 and 91.05% (Table 4). Our results are consistent with another research, where it was observed that total phenols concentration, flavonoid content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity ranged from 1.0 to 180.5 mg GA g-1 dry weight (García-Díaz et al., 2018), 0.33 to 2.18 mg CE g-1 flour (Herrera-Hernández et al., 2018), 0.01 to 6.76 mg C3G g-1 flour (García-Díaz et al., 2018) and 15.23 to 80.62% (Herrera-Hernández et al., 2018) respectively. Pigmented seed coats of common beans are overall rich in polyphenols, they are influenced by genotype, environmental conditions, storage and processing methods (Yang et al., 2018). Black beans exhibit a high content of anthocyanins and flavonoids; therefore, black beans are considered to have a higher antioxidant capacity than the other varieties (Corzo-Ríos et al., 2020).
 

Table 4: Total phenolic (TPH), flavonoid (FLV), anthocyanin (ANT) content and radical scavenging activity (RSA) from common beans grown in Tabasco, Mexico.

This study has shown that common bean varieties grown in the state of Tabasco have high biological and antioxidant potential that could be beneficial to human health when consumed as nutraceutical foods.
None.

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