​Impact of Foliar Spray of Plant Growth Retardants with Potassium on Growth Traits, Gas Exchange Parameters and Grain Yield in Foxtail Millet (Panicum italicum L.)

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-5834    | Article Id: A-5834 | Page : 147-151
Citation :- ​Impact of Foliar Spray of Plant Growth Retardants with Potassium on Growth Traits, Gas Exchange Parameters and Grain Yield in Foxtail Millet (Panicum italicum L.).Indian Journal of Agricultural Research.2022.(56):147-151
R. Sivakumar, P. Parasuraman, M. Vijayakumar sivakumar.r@tnau.ac.in
Address : Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur-635 112, Tamil Nadu, India.
Submitted Date : 1-06-2021
Accepted Date : 11-08-2021


Background: Foxtail millet is one of the nutri-cereal foods for the people of semi arid regions. Proper nutrient management and source-sink alteration are major keys for achieving higher productivity in millets. However, potassium is not recommended to foxtail millet and the potential yield is not exploited. And also the study of source-sink alteration in foxtail millet by using plant growth regulators is meager.
Methods: An experiment was conducted to study the impact of plant growth retardants viz., chlormequat chloride (CCC) and mepiquat chloride (MC) with the nutrient potassium (K2SO4 - 1%) on growth, gas exchange parameters and grain yield of foxtail millet under rainfed condition. Plant growth retardants with potassium consortium were used as foliar spray at flower initiation stage under field condition. Standard methods were used to measure the plant height, root length, number of leaves, LAD, CGR and grain yield. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and leaf temperature were measured by using the instrument PPS.
Result: Foliar spray of CCC (250 ppm) with 1% K2SO4 showed supremacy to enhance crop growth rate, leaf area duration, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and grain yield compared to other treatments. However, lowest plant height (100.7 cm) and number of leaves were observed by CCC (250 ppm) alone. Highest photosynthetic rate (26.84) and transpiration rate (17.94) were registered by CCC + K2SO4. Lowest leaf temperature of 34.1ºC was registered by 1% K2SO4 compared to control (35.6°C). CCC with K2SO4 recorded highest LAD value of 46.1 which is on par with K2SO4 alone (45.9). CCC with K2SO4 registered highest grain yield of 2.13 t ha-1 with increased yield of 18.3% over control. However, highest benefit cost ratio of ratio of 2.75 was recorded by 1% K2SO4 alone.


​CCC CGR Foxtail millet Grain yield K2SO4 Leaf temperature Photosynthetic rate


  1. Akshit, Sheoran, R.S., Harender, Kumar, S. and Kavinder. (2020). Effect of potassium and boron fertilization on growth, forage yield and quality of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.). Legume Research - An International Journal. 43(3): 421-426.
  2. Ali, A., Hussain, M., Habib, H.S., Kiani, T.T., Anees, M.A. and Rahman, M.A. (2016). Foliar spray surpasses soil application of potassium for maize production under rainfed conditions. Turkish Journal of Field Crops. 21(1): 36-43.
  3. Anosheh, P., Emam, Y. and Khaliq, A. (2016). Response of cereals to cycocel application. Iran Agricultural Research. 35(1): 1-12.
  4. Athnere, S., Kolage, A., Gagare, Y. and Gadakh, M. (2020). Effect of Potash on Physiochemical Properties of Summer Green Gram at Different Irrigation Schedules. Chemical Science Review and Letters. 9 (35): 660-664.
  5. Banerjee, A., Datta, J.K. and Mondal, N.K. (2012). Changes in morpho-physiological traits of mustard under the influence of different fertilizers and plant growth regulator cycocel. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 11: 89-97.
  6. Durgad, A.G., Amrutha, T.J., Suresh, S.P., Hiremath, G.M., Goudappa, S.B. and Ananda, N. (2019). Economics of foxtail and little millets production in Ballari and Koppal districts of Karnataka, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 9: 214-222.
  7. Emam, Y. (2011). Cereal production (4th ed.). Shiraz: Shiraz University Press.
  8. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. (2nd Ed.) John Wiley and sons, NewYork, USA.
  9. Hariprasanna, K. (2016). Foxtail Millet - Nutritional importance and cultivation aspects. Indian Farming. 65(12): 25-29.
  10. Jiriaie, M. and Sajedii, N.A. (2012). Effect of plant growth regulators on agro physiological traits of wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) var. Shahriar] under water deficit stress. Research on Crops. 13(1): 37-45.
  11. Khondoker, R., Rasal Monir, M.D. and Kabir, M.H. (2019). Influence of anti-transpirant and cycocel on growth and flowering of tuberose under different moisture regimes. International Journal of Natural and Social Sciences. 6(2): 27-43.
  12. Kumar, K.K.A., Patil, B.C. and Chetti, M.B. (2005). Effect of plant growth regulators on physiological components of yield in hybrid cotton. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 10(2): 187-190.
  13. Kumar, P., Hiremath, S.M., Deshmukh, P.S. and Kushwaha, S.R. (2002). Effect of growth regulators on growth yield and metabolism in soybean genotypes. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 36(4): 254-258.
  14. Latifkar, M., Mojaddam, M. and Nejad, T.S. (2014). The effect of application time of cycocel hormone and plant density on yield and yield components of wheat (Chamran cv.) in Ahvaz weather conditions. International Journal of Biosciences. 4: 234-242.
  15. Mansuroglu, S., Karaguzel, O., Ortacesme, V. and Sayan, M.S. (2009). Effect of paclobutrazol on flowering, leaf and flower colour of Consolida orientalis. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41: 2323-2332.
  16. Mumtaz, A., Cheema, M.A., Sattar, A., Rasul, F. and Saleem, M.F. (2012). Influence of different levels of potassium on growth, yield and quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 49(2): 163-168.
  17. Power, J.E., Wills, W.O., Granes, D.L. and Reichman, G.A. (1967). Effect of soil temperature, phosphorus and plant age on growth analysis of barley. Agronomy Journal. 59: 231-234.
  18. Qin, R., Noulas, C., Wysocki, D., Liang, X., Wang, G. and Lukas, S. (2020). Application of plant growth regulators on soft white winter wheat under different nitrogen fertilizer scenarios in irrigated fields. Agriculture. 10: 305-318.
  19. Rad, S.B. and Boland, R.H. (2017). Effect of potassium application in drought-stressed tobacco (Nicotiana rustica L.) plants: Comparison of root with foliar application. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 62(2): 121-130.
  20. Rajesh, K., Reddy, N.S., Reddy, P.K.A. and Singh, G.B. (2014). Effect of plant growth regulating compounds on chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate and yield of greengram. International Journal of Development Research. 4(5): 1110-1112.
  21. Secondo, A.S.P. and Reddy, Y.A.N. (2018). Plant growth retardants improve sink strength and yield of sunflower. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 7(10): 111-119.
  22. Sivakumar, R. and Surendar, K.K. (2020). Effects of plant growth regulators and potassium on growth and yield of finger millet. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 49(2): 223-228.
  23. Truong, K. (2017). The Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium on the Growth of Brassica rapa, Best Integrated Writing. 4: 88-99.
  24. Vasileva, V.H. and Dinev, N.S. (2021). Mineral content and quality parameters of tomato fruits as affected by different potassium fertilization treatments and cultivar specifics. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 55(2): 169-174. 
  25. Vishal, V.C., Thippesha, D., Chethana, K., Maheshgowda, B.M., Veeresha, B.G. and Basavraj, A.K. (2016). Effect of various growth regulators on vegetative parameters of strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa Duch.) Cv. Sujatha. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences. 4(4): 68-71.
  26. Watson, D.J. (1958). Comparative physiological studies on the growth of field crops. Variation in net assimilation rate and leaf area between species and varieties and within and between years. Annals of Botany. 2: 41-76.
  27. Yadav, A.K., Kumar, A., Singh, J., Jat, R.D., Jat, H.S., Datta, A., Singh, K., Choudhary, R., Choudhary, K.M. and Sutaliya, J.M. (2015). Differential response of pearl millet genotypes to irrigated and rainfed conditions. Ecology, Environment and Conservation. 21(4): 2013-2020.
  28. Zaina, N.M.M. and Ismail, M.R. (2016). Effects of potassium rates and types on growth, leaf gas exchange and biochemical changes in rice (Oryza sativa) planted under cyclic water stress. Agricultural Water Management. 164: 83-90. 

Global Footprints