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Influence of Iron Coated Seeds on Time of Sowing in Wet Direct Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
First Online 03-08-2021|
Methods: Studies were conducted during the year 2018 and 2019 at the Department of Rice, TNAU, Coimbatore on influence of iron coated seeds and time of sowing in wet direct seeded rice. Experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. In main plot, different time of sowing at weekly interval viz., first, second, third and fourth week of August sowing, where as in sub-plot iron coated seeds broadcasting in 1-2 mm water level condition; iron coated seeds broadcasting in wet condition; uncoated seeds broadcasting in 1-2 mm water level condition; uncoated seeds broadcasting in wet condition and normal method of transplanting.
Result: The results indicated that iron coated seeds of variety Swarna, broadcasting in 1-2 mm water level condition during the first fortnight of August sowing resulted higher grain yield (5653 kg/ha) when compared delayed sowing. The Fe coating significantly increased grain yield over non-coating. Iron coated seeds recorded lesser occurrence of pest and disese incidence when compared to un-coated seeds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based on the two years of experimental study, the result revealed that first fortnight of August sowing using iron coated seeds broadcasting in 1-2 mm water level condition resulted higher number of panicles/m2 (361) and panicle weight (2.73 g) when compared to delayed sowing (Table 1 and 2). Grain and straw yield was recorded higher under first fortnight of August sowing using iron coated seeds broadcasting in 1-2 mm water level condition (5275 kg/ha) than those of delayed sowing in second fortnight of August (Table 3). There was a significant reduction in grain yield due to a delay of one week from second sowing (Fig 1). However, Fe coating significantly increased grain yield over non-coating. There is a significant increase of grain yield to the tune of 9.85 per cent due to iron coating of seeds which felicitated a better system of establishment and growth (Fig 2). Higher straw yield was also noticed in iron coated seeds broadcasting in 1-2 mm water level condition when compared to delay sowing during second fortnight of August. It is mainly due to the iron coated seed rice is coated with iron powder, which increases its weight so that seed settle easily in water and forms a tough coating that preventing birds from eating the seeds. The seeds were floated less and rooted and anchored better as the increase in the density. It was determined that rice seeds with a density greater than 2.11 Mg m-3 allowed the seminal roots to penetrate into the puddled soil at a water depth of 10 cm. The seed density required for direct seeding should be determined not only by field conditions but also by cultural practices. Field conditions may include water movement as affected by wind speed and soil physical surface conditions (PragyanKumari et al., 2017). The density required in the continuous flooding of water seeding might be greater than that required delayed flooding (Yamuchi, 2017). Iron-coated rice seeds exhibit high density, improved anchorage and resistance to sparrow attack and seed borne diseases. These iron coated seeds can be stored at room temperature or more than one year and can be sown without soaking or incubation.
Iron coating efficiently controlled seed density over the range of 1.1 and 3.1 Mg m-3 with a coating ratio between 0 (non-coating) and 4. The seeds prepared using a standard Fe coating ratio of 0.5 had a density of 1.6 Mg m-3, which is not attainable biologically. Therefore, Fe coating is an efficient method for increasing seed density.
Effect of iron coated seeds on pest incidence of rice
Effect of iron coated seed on insect pest incidence (ESCP) revealed that low pest incidence in different treatments (Table 4). Stem borer incidence was at par in different seed coated treatments (0.5 - 10.6% DH and 3.9 - 16.6% WE) and also in different sowings (0.1 - 10.8% DH and 4.1 - 16.4% WE). However, gall midge (9.2 - 13.9% SS) and BPH incidence (11-19) /hoppers hill) was found low in iron coated seed treatments compared to normal transplanting (24.6% SS and 33/ hill) and uncoated seed treatments (22.6% SS and 32/ hill). Seed coating also provided protection against the pests. When the Fe- coating ratio is increased, the damage is reduced (Yamuchi, 2006; Chikawa et al., 2014). The Fe-coating ratios required for preventing pests are 0.5 and 1.0, respectively.
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