Chief EditorT. Mohapatra
Print ISSN 0367-8245
Online ISSN 0976-058X
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Influence of Different Moisture Conservation Practices and Crop Sequence on Direct Seeded Rice based Cropping System in Rainfed Ecosystem of Assam, India
Methods: In the field experiment during 2016-17 and 2017-18, different size of bed of Broad bed Furrow (BBF) including Flatbed was made manually consisting four replication. After final land preparation the experimental field was divided into four blocks and each block was divided in to six main plots to allocate the six soil moisture conservation practices randomly, for growing summer (direct seeded ahu rice), kharif (green gram) crops. The main plots were again divided in to four sub-plots to allocate the rabi crops randomly following a split-plot design. Incorporation of crop residues was done in the plots as per treatments.
Result: The investigation resulted better performance of both the size of BBF beds as compared to flatbed method in respect of yield attributes and yield of the crops studied. Among the BBF, 60-30 cm size bed showed better than the BBF 120-30 cm size beds. The residue incorporation plots were shown comparatively better result than no residue incorporation treatments. The present study will be a contribution to the study of BBF particularly in pulse crops due to heavy rainfall received during kharif season in Assam.
MATERIALS AND METHODES
The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam in texture with an initial pH of 5.2 and 5.4 in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The organic carbon content was 0.59% and the initial available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were in the range of low (259.10 kg ha-1), medium (25.65 kg ha-1) and low (112.30 kg ha-1). The treatments consisted of 6 moisture conservation practices consisting land configuration of Flat bed and Broad Bed Furrow (BBF) along with crop residue incorporation. Two different sizes of BBF were studied consisting 60 cm and 120 cm width with a gap of 30 cm furrowsize in between beds. The treatments were Flat bed with crop residue incorporation (M1), Flat bed with no residue incorporation (M2), BBF 60-30 cm with residue incorporation (M3), BBF 60-30 cm without residue incorporation (M4), BBF 120-30 cm with crop residue incorporation (M5) and BBF 60-30 cm without crop residue incorporation (M6).
The experimental plot was ploughed by tractor drawn plough followed by one harrowing. Laddering was done properly to retain water uniformly in the field. After final land preparation the experimental field was divided into four blocks and each block was divided in to six main plots to allocate the six soil moisture conservation practices randomly, for growing summer (direct seeded ahu rice) and kharif (greengram) crops in sequence. The layout of the experiment consisting of the broad bed furrows at 60 cm and 120 cm apart, with 30 cm width furrow in between them were constructed manually along with the flatbeds, before sowing of rice crop. The main plots were again divided in to four sub-plots to allocate the rabi crops randomly following a split-plot design. Rice crop was sown accordingly with a spacing of 20 cm in both broad bed and flatbed surface of the soil. There were 3 rows of rice crop in one 60 cm bed and 6 rows of rice in 120 cm bed, while in flatbeds seeds were sown in usual lines of 20 cm apart.
For incorporation of crop residues the straw weight was recorded after harvesting the crop at the ground level followed by threshing. Then the rice straw (residue) was incorporated in the plots as per treatments by spreading them as uniformly as possible after the first opening of the plots to grow greengram in succession. The remaining plots were kept as such without crop residues. The follow up land preparation was carried out by hoeing manually without breaking the beds and furrows and greengram was also sown in all the sub-plots similar to that of direct seeded ahu rice.
In rabi season, after harvest of greengram by uprooting the plant, the remaining pods that left after field pickings were separated, weighed and incorporated in the plots as per treatments, similar to that of rice and greengram. The entire plots in each block were prepared manually, retained the broad bed furrows and four rabi crops viz. toria, linseed, niger and buckwheat were allocated randomly following split-plot design. Due to dis-similarity in biometric observations on different rabi crop parameters, RBD was followed for analyses of variance. The rabi crops were sown in lines at the recommended spacing of the crops. The fertilizer application and all other cultural practices were also performed as per recommendations of the crop.
The rice crop was sown in line with 20 cm spacing and in 60-30 cm bed, 3 rows of rice was allocated and in 120-30 cm bed, 6 rows of rice were allocated. The greengram crop was sown in 30 cm spacing in all the BBF and flat beds. The variety used for direct seeded rice was “Inglongkiri” which was developed by Regional Agricultural Research Station, Assam Agricultural University Diphu, having a average duration of 115-120 days. For greengram the variety SG-1 (Pratap) was selected for the study. In the first year rice crop was sown on 23.03.16 and in second year the rice was sown on 22.03.17 and harvested on 18.07.16 and 16.07.17, respectively. The second crop greengram crop was sown in 15.08.16 in the first year and 16.08.17 in second year and harvested on 24.10.16 and 22.10.17, respectively. The rabi crops were sown in the 2nd week of November and harvested in Feb (toria, linseed and niger) and march (linseed).
For all the crops, yield attributes and yield were recorded and analyzed statistically for interpretation of the data. The individual crops were analyzed in RBD and system parameters were analyzed in split plot design.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The panicle sm-2 under BBF 60-30 cm with residue (113.00 and 117.69 in 2016 and 2017 and without residue (112.69 and 113.75 in 2016 and 2017 which was equal to BBF 120-30 cm with residue (109.56 and 113.63 in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The BBF 60-30 cm with residue incorporation resulted in significantly higher values of grains panicle-1 over both flatbeds with or without residue incorporation (Table 1).
The higher number of effective panicles m-2 and grains panicle-1 under BBF may be due to better growth of the crop resulting from more retention and conservation of water in the furrows which was utilised during rainless periods. Higher number of grains panicle-1 (Kaur and Dhaliwal, 2015) and grains panicle-1 (Hobbs and Gupta, 2003) of rice due to better growth of the crop under raised bed sowing method than the flatbed method was also reported.
Grain and straw yield
In 2016, the grain yield under the treatments BBF 60-30 cm with (23.43 q ha-1) and without residue (22.72 q ha-1) and BBF 120-30 cm with residue (22.81 q ha-1) were at par and BBF 60-30 cm with residue produced significantly higher grain yield over rest of the treatments. In 2017, BBF 60-30cm with residue (25.70 q ha-1) significantly out yielded all other treatments (Table 1). The pooled data over the years revealed that BBF 60-30 cm with residue (24.56 q ha-1) produced significantly higher grain yield over rest of the treatments. In rice-wheat cropping system, the increase of rice yield by 33% and wheat yield by 60% in the permanent bed sowing method was reported by Singh et al., (2011).
Yield attributes of kharif greengram
The treatment BBF 60-30 cm both with and without residue incorporation produced significantly higher number of clusters plant-1 over rest of the treatments during both 2016 and 2017 (Table 2). In respect to number of pods cluster-1, in 2016, BBF 60-30 cm and BBF 120-30 cm with and without residue incorporation showed at par effect but significantly higher over both flatbed methods. While in 2017, the effect of BBF 60-30 cm with and without residue incorporation and BBF 120-30 cm without residue incorporation on number of pod cluster-1 were significantly higher over rest of the treatments. In case of number of seeds pod-1 and 1000 seed weight, higher values were recorded under BBF 60-30 cm with residue incorporation. The optimum moisture availability due to the adequate drainage of excess rain water through the furrows in BBF methods might have resulted in better yield attributing characters compared to flatbed sowing. A similar result of increased yield attributes of kharif greengram viz., number of clusters plant-1 and pod cluster-1 due to the land configuration of BBF compared to flatbed method was also reported by Tomar (2013).
Seed and stover yield
Both the treatment BBF 60-30 cm and BBF 120-30 cm with and without residue incorporation resulted in statistically at par seed and stover yield and produced significantly higher values over the flatbed (Table 2). The highest seed (9.58 q ha-1 and 10.63 q ha-1 in 2016 and 2017, respectively) and stover yield (27.62 q ha-1 and 29.26 q ha-1, in 2016 and 2017, respectively) were recorded with the treatment BBF 60-30 cm with residue followed by BBF 60-30 cm without residue and BBF with and without residue incorporation. The BBF 60-30 cm with residue incorporation resulted in higher seed and stover yields by about 35.6% and 39.3% over the flatbed methods with or without residue incorporation. The higher yield attributes like number of clusters plant-1, pods cluster-1 and seeds pods-1 (Table 2) under the treatment BBF 60-30 cm might have attributed to higher seed and stover yield of greengram. Increased seed and stover yield of chickpea and safflower by 12.5% and 10.7% in BBF planting over traditional flatbed method were also reported by Khambalkar, (2014).
Yield attributes and yields of buckwheat
The number of cymes plant-1 and 1000-seed weight (Table 3) of buckwheat did not vary significantly due to different moisture conservation practices in both the year. But the number of seeds cyme-1 was significantly higher under the treatment BBF 60-30 cm with or without crop residue incorporation over the flat bed methods and the lowest seeds cyme-1 was recorded in flat bed without residue.
In regards to seed and stover yields (Table 3) in both the year, BBF 60-30 cm with and without residue incorporation brought about significantly higher values over that of flatbeds with and without residue incorporation. Pooled data over the years also showed similar results in both the cases. Similar results of the increased seed yield of safflower due to different land configurations over the flat bed sowing was also reported by Khambalkar (2014).
Yields attributes and yield of linseed
During both the year, different moisture conservation practices significantly influenced the number of capsules plant-1 while the number of seeds capsule-1 and 1000-seed weight did not vary significantly. In both year, the seed yield (Table 4) of linseed due to BBF 60-30 both with (6.13 and 6.29 q ha-1 during 2016-17 and 2017-18) and without residue (5.50 and 5.72 q ha-1 during 2016-17 and 2017-18) and BBF 120-30 cm with residue incorporation (5.80 and 5.96 q ha-1 during 2016-17 and 2017-18) were at par and BBF 60-30 with residue produced significantly higher seed yield over rest of the treatments. From the results of a field experiment carried out at Madhya Pradesh, Gupta (2018) also observed higher yield attributes and seed and stover yields of soybean under Broad Bed Furrows compared to flat beds.
Yield attributes and yields of niger
In both the year, BBF 60-30 cm and BBF 120-30 cm with residue and without residue resulted in at par effect and recorded higher capitula plant-1 over flatbed methods of sowing (Table 5). Similar trend of results was also observed in regards to number of seeds capitula -1 during both the year. The seed and stover yield of niger showed higher in both BBF 60-30 cm and BBF 120-30 cm as compared to flatbed method of moisture conservation (Table 5).
Yield attributes and yield of Toria
During both the year, different moisture conservation practices brought about significant impact on number of siliqua plant-1 of toria (Table 6). But it failed to show any significant variation on number of seeds siliqua-1 and 1000-seed weight of toria. In 2016-17, the seed yield due to BBF 60-30 cm and BBF 120-30 cmand in 2017-18, BBF 60-30 cm both with and without and BBF 120-30 cm with residue incorporation were at par and significantly higher values of seed yield were recorded under BBF 60-30 cm with residue (6.10 and 6.34 q ha-1 during 2016-17 and 2017-18, respectively) over other treatments (Table 6). Due to better tillering and crop growth, 12% higher wheat grain yield with ridge furrow planting in comparison to farmer’s practice of flat planting was reported by Hussain (2018).
Rice equivalent yield (REY) of rice-based cropping systems
The rice equivalent yields of the system (Table 7) were significantly influenced by different moisture conservation practices. In 2016-17, BBF 60-30 cm and BBF120-30 cm both with residue (81.77 q ha-1 and 77.80 q ha-1) and without residue (79.03 q ha-1 and 76.47 q ha-1) produced statistically similar REY and all being significantly higher over flatbed method of sowing both with (64.29 q ha-1) and without residue incorporation (63.56 q ha-1). In 2017-18, the highest REY was recorded with the treatment BBF 60-30 cm with residue (89.64 q ha-1) which was at par with BBF 60-30 cm without residue (82.56 q ha-1) and BBF 120-30 cm with residue incorporation (82.47 q ha-1), but significantly higher over rest of the treatments. The lowest value was recorded under flatbed without residue incorporation (66.05 q ha-1).
During both the year, the REY (Table 7) due to different crop sequences varied significantly. In 2016-17, the REY of direct seeded rice-greengram-toria (78.13 q ha-1) and direct seeded ahu rice-greengram-linseed (74.75 q ha-1) were at par and the effect of direct seeded rice-greengram-toria was significantly higher over direct seeded ahu rice-greengram-niger (72.58 q ha-1) and direct seeded ahu rice-greengram-buckwheat (69.80 q ha-1). In 2017-18, the crop sequences viz. direct seeded ahu rice-greengram-toria (81.97 q ha-1), followed by direct seeded ahu rice-greengram-linseed (79.28 q ha-1) and direct seeded ahu rice-greengram-niger (77.29 q ha-1) resulted in similar values and direct seeded rice-greengram-toria showed significantly higher rice equivalent yield over direct seeded ahu rice-greengram-buckwheat (74.90 q ha-1).
It was observed that, direct seeded ahu rice, being the base and uniform crop, the REY of different crops of the cropping systems mostly influenced by both kharif greengram and rabi crops. Besides, the higher production potential of toria as compared to the other rabi crops and the better market price of toria contributed much for attaining higher REY under the sequence. This is in conformity with the findings of Kalita (2015) and Baishya (2016).
In both year, the highest cost of cultivation was associated with the treatment BBF 60-30cm (Rs. 56,815/ha and 58,315/ha, in 2016-17 and 2017-18) (Table 8). This was mainly due to the cost involved in preparation of broad bed furrows as per closure and widened sizes of the beds and associated cost of residues and labour engaged in incorporation. During both the year, considerably higher gross (Rs.94,035 ha-1 and 1,03,086 ha-1, in 2016-17 and 2017-18, respectively) and net return (Rs.37,220 ha-1 and 44771 ha-1, in 2016-17 and 2017-18, respectively) were recorded with the treatment BBF 60-30 cm with residue incorporation compared to other treatments. The lowest gross return of Rs. 74,525 ha-1 was obtained under flatbed without residue incorporation.
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