Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

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Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 56 issue 2 (april 2022) : 162-169

Standardization of Different Pre-sowing Seed Treatments on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Kodo Millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum)

Maddipoti Kavitha1,*, Prashant Kumar Rai1, B. Haritha1, R. Karthik Kumar1, A. Hemanth Kumar1, Sarita Khandka1
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj-211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Cite article:- Kavitha Maddipoti, Rai Kumar Prashant, Haritha B., Kumar Karthik R., Kumar Hemanth A., Khandka Sarita (2022). Standardization of Different Pre-sowing Seed Treatments on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Kodo Millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum) . Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 56(2): 162-169 . doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-5755.
Background: Paspalum scorbiculatum is an annual crop and has superior nutritional properties including high micronutrients, dietary fiber content and gluten free. It has low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate diets help in prevention of Obesity, Diabeties and Cardiovascular diseases, etc. The current study was aimed to find out the suitable pre- sowing seed treatments for Kodo millet.

Methods: During the Kharif season 2019- 2020 total of 12 pre- sowing seed treatments were subjected with Botanicals, Magnetic and Electric fields, Thermal (Hot water) treatments and to fix the best treatment based on Seed Quality and Morphological traits of treated seeds. Morphological traits play an major role in crop growth and development where as, the present investigation was carried out with farmer’s variety in field (RBD) design in 3 replications and laboratory (CRD) design in 4 replications in order to “Standardization of different pre- sowing seed treatments on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of Kodo millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum). Seeds were subjected to various pre- sowing seed treatments viz. (T0) control, exposure to Magnetic field at 100 mT, 200 mT, 400 mT for 15,30 and 45 min; exposure to Electric field at 50 mA, 100 mA, 150 mA for 5,10, 15 min. Treatment with botanicals cow dung (5 gm) and Datura leaf extract (2.5 ml) for 12 hrs; Thermal hot water treatment at 46°C and 50°C for 10 min.

Result: Among all the treatments, T4-Magnetic field (200 mT) gave the best results in field and lab conditions of field emergence (98.610) and germination% (98.5), Magnetic field (400 mT) shown the good results and significantly higher values of all other yield (45.867, 78.833, 660.480, 165.120) and morphological traits as well as seed quality parameters like shoot length (86.925), root length (44.55), seedling length (13.131), vigour index- I and II (1267.138 and 5.058), fresh (0.343) and dry (0.0524) weight of seedlings and comparatively control (T0) was observed lowest to other treatments. As such, Magnetic treatment is quite effective for seedling establishment to overcome low germination and yield which helps in Qualitative and Quantiative seed production of Millets in sustainable agriculture.
Kodo millet is also known as kodon, arekelu and its origin is India. It has been cultivated for 3000 years in India, where it is considered as a minor cereal crop except in the Deccan where it is a cereal crop of utmost importance. Kodo millet is well suited to dry conditions and can be grown in a variety of poor soil types from gravelly to clay. It has superior nutritional properties including high micronutrients and low glycemic index (GI). Grain contains protein: 11%, fiber: 9%, carbohydrates: 66.6 g, vit- Band effective iron content (39.60 ppm) (Chandel et al., 2014). It is used as Herbpathy for heart disease, strangury and prevention of insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, etc (Balasubramanium, 2013).
Kodo millet grown in India on marginal lands and produces high grain yields under limited water. Currently, it is being cultivated only in india on limited acre (0.20 million ha)  (Ganapathy 2017; Bhat et al., 2018). It is grown in area of about 907, 800 ha with annual production of about 310,710 tonnes (Yadav et al., 2013). Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have maximum share in production and promotion of kodon. The area under cultivation of small millets in India (where kodo is largely cultivated) from 5.29 to 0.69 million ha between 1951 and 1955 and 2011 to 2015, with exception of finger millet (ICAR- All India Coordinated Research Project on small millets Annual Report 2017-2018, available at
Botanical seed treatment is derived from natural sources based on botanical ingredient. It is liquid, natural seed treatment and root growth promoter formulation. Pearl millet is treated with viscum album extract with 10% concentration was found to be more effective in seed quality characters and also in increasing resistance against to downy mildew disease variance from (44-70%) protection reported by Chandrashekhara et al., 2010.
Exposure of seeds to electromagnetic fields is one of the safest and potential physical pre sowing treatments to enhance the post germination development and crop stand (Florez et al., 2007). The magnetic field of 125 mT stimulating the effect of initial growth stages of barley seeds which were subjected to a magnetic field for various times and increase in the length and weight were observed by (Carbonell et al., 2000). The magnetic field as a single treatment was used widely as the subject of different studies as shown positive effects to improve the rate of germination of seeds and growing plants. (Aladjadjiyam 2002; Martinez et al., 2017) found a optimistic growth response to the static magnetic field ranging between 50 and 250 mT at distinct periods of time in rice, wheat, maize and barley seeds and also (Pittman, 1970; Kordas 2002) was found to improve crop growth and yield.
Hot water thermal treatment results, the seed quality improved by breaking dormancy of seed at 50°C and 60°C at optimum room temperature of foxtail millet shown best results of germination and seedling length (Sebastian et al., 2015). So keeping these aspects in view the present study was carried out with following objectives.
1. To assess the combined and individual effect of different pre-sowing seed treatments on seedling characters of Kodo millet.
2. To find out the suitable pre-sowing seed treatments for Kodo millet.
The present investigation entitled “Standardization of different pre-sowing seed treatments on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of Kodo millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum)”. Experiment was conducted in field (RBD) design and in laboratory (CRD) design at Post Graduate Laboratory of Department of Physics in Kharif season, 2019-2020 at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj.
Source of seed
The seed was collected from the farmer named “Anantha Ramulu” at Kamareddy district, Telangana. The variety is farmers variety and is a pure seed, no breeding techniques are done. He was a farmer and seed supplier as whole sale, he was also the member of farmers committee in Indian Institute of Millets (IIMR), Hyderabad, Telangana.
Quality of seed
Seeds are the foundation of agriculture. The Kodo millet has such characteristics like trueness to variety, good germination percentage, purity, vigour and appearance which are always important to farmers during sowing or planting crops. As it is a self-pollinated crop there is no problem of fertilization and having a strong embryo often doesn’t affect the quality of seed when exposed to adverse weather conditions. But the Monocot seed (kodo millet) having hard seed coat, embryonic axis can cause severe damage, resulting in abnormal seedlings and having very slow germination and seedling emergence in field.
Experimental site
The Crop Research farm is situated at 250 57°N Latitude, 870 50°E Longitude and 98 meter altitude above the MSL. The temperature falls down to as low as 1°C-2°C during winters in December to January and 46°C to 48°C during summers. The average rainfall is 1013.4 mm annually.
Experimental materials
The experimental material consists of 12 treatments which includes different materials in various concentrations and methods. The details of the treatment are furnished in Table 3.

Table 3: Treatment details.

Organic and medicinal plants with different mechanisms of action have been suggested, they may inhibit microorganisms, interfere with some metabolic processes and empact of pre-sowing seed treatments and organo mineral fertilizer on spring barley production given by Abd Ei Hamid and Burgaev (2020).
Exposure of seeds to magnetic field for specified duration improves germination and vigour and treated seed respire slowly with higher respiration quotient value that increase activity of enzyme viz., α-amaylase and nitrate reductase. Germination and vigour of seeds are enhanced due to increased activity of enzymes.
Electric field involves treating seeds with sodium chloride and electric conductivity meter that affects on ions in the soil and can influence the plant metabolism, growth patterns by effecting on the electron transport chain and the dark and light reactions of photosynthesis in leaves (Celestino et al., 2000).
Hot water treatment is a actual practice of suggesting physical seed dormancy and seed-coat damage results, studies that water imbibition. An indication of the amount of possible seed injury, traceable to the hot-water treatment. By overcoming seed coat-related dormancy in situ would have implications for the conservation of this species.
Analysis of variance revealed that the differences among 12treatments were significant for seedling characters and field parameters. Mean value is defined by the ratio of the sum of observations to the total number of observations. It avoids variation of over all data and depends only on extreme values. The data is presented in field parameters (Table 1a and 1b, Fig 1) and seedling characters (Table 2, Fig 2) which show the mean performance of 12 treatments and is used to check whether they are statistically at par by subtracting the CD value from the highest value of a particular set of observations.

Table 1a: Mean table for growth parameters of Kodo millet.


Fig 1: Standardization of different seed priming treatments on field parameters in Kodo millet.


Table 1b: Mean table for yield and yield attributing traits.


Fig 2: Standardization of different seed priming treatments on seedling parameters in Kodo millet.


Table 2: Mean performance table of seedling parameters.

Analysis of variance for field revealed that mean sum of squares due to seed priming treatments were highly significant at @ 5% and 1% level of significance for 2 parameters and 5% significant for all other characters under study indicating presence of good amount of variability among the treatments for all parameters of (Fig 1 and Fig 2) used in the study. This indicated the ample scope of seed priming treatments in kodo millet. Replications were non- significant for all parameters except panicle length indicating good homogeneity among replications. This suggested, an ample scope to identify suitable seed priming method to improve seed quality and yield attributing traits of Kodo millet.
Field emergence
The mean performance of field emergence ranged from 79.160% to 98.610% with mean value of 86.110% and found significantly maximum of 98.610% of T4- magnetic @ 200 mT and T5- magnetic @ 400 mT was found to be at par value. After post-harvest conditioning seeds are more vigorous and less sensitive to unfavourable environmental conditions during field emergence given by (Rochalska et al., 2005). Similar findings were reported by Rajesh (2011) in finger millet.
Plant height (60 and 90 days)
The mean performance of plant height ranged from (259.033 to 358.600 cm) and (358.433 to 437.667 cm) with mean value of 310.867 cm and 393.567 cm significantly maximum, highest plant height was recorded (358.600 and 437.667 cm) by T5 magnetic field @ 400 mT. The results are of findings of Kalaraju et al., (2009) in pearl millet found taller plants at harvest stage. Similar results are in conformity with the findings of Makkhanlal et al., (2007) and Michael et al., (2016) in pearl millet. The enhancement of most vegetative characteristics of a plant can be explained by magnetic seed treatment that the groups of molecules become small in size compared to their pre-magnetization status. This allows for good and rapid transfer through root cells and come up with enhanced mineral uptake.
Days of 50% flowering
It was presented in the mean performance of days of 50% flowering ranged from 94.333% to 77.667% with mean value of 83.667%. Significantly maximum percentage of days of 50% flowering (77.667) highest value was recorded by T5 - Magnetic field @400 mT. Similar results of days of 50% flowering was observed by Sridevi and Manonmani (2016).
Days of maturity
It was presented the mean performance of days of maturity ranged from 124.333 to 108.333 with mean value of 113.667. Significantly maximum percentage of days of maturity (108.333) highest value was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @ 400 mT. Similar results of days of maturity was observed by Sridevi and Manonmani, (2016).
No. of tillers per plant
It was presented the mean performance of no. of tillers per plant ranged from 3.667 to 18.00 with mean value of 9.333. Significantly maximum no. of tillers per plant  (18.00) highest value was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @ 400 mT. The results were in conformity with the findings of Kalaraju et al., (2009) and in pearl millet taller plants, no. of tillers/ plant were found at harvest reported by (Nandini et al., (2019).
No. of  panicles per plant
It  was presented the mean performance of no. of panicles per plant  ranged from 14.667 to 36.667 with mean value of 23.333. Significantly maximum No. of panicles per plant (36.667) highest value was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @ 400 mT. Similar findings were also reported by Naidu and Rao (1958), Narasimha Rao et al., (1963); Rajesh (2011) in finger millet.
Panicle length per plant
It was presented the mean performance of Panicle length per plant  ranged from 52.00 cm to 67.5 cm with mean value of 58.833 cm. Significantly maximum panicle length per plant  (67.5 cm) highest value was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @ 400 mT. Similar findings were reported and observed high variability for panicle length and width of earlier reports in Sorghum by Elangovan et al., (2013) and similar results were reported by Dossou-Aminon et al., (2015) and reports of Akatwijuka et al., (2016) in millets.
Peduncle length per plant
It was presented the mean performance of peduncle length per plant ranged from 23.3 cm to 32.933 cm with mean value of 27.433 cm. Significantly maximum peduncle length per plant (32.933 cm) highest value was recorded by T5 - Magnetic field @ 400 mT. Similar reports by Upadhyaya et al., (2006) also observed a strong association of peduncle length in finger millet.
Grain yield per plant
It was presented the mean performance of grain yield  per plant  ranged from 27.9 gm  to 45.867 gm  with mean value of 35.933 gm. Significantly maximum Grain yield  per plant  (45.867 gm) highest value  was recorded by T5 - Magnetic field @ 400 mT and T0 - control (27.9 gm) was recorded and found to be lowest value. Cultivation of plants with desirable density has positive effect on crop yield components, so that the suitable yield was achieved by superlative plant density by (Ullah et al., 2005).
Biological yield per plant
It was presented the mean performance of biological yield per plant  ranged from 57.233 gm to 78.833 gm with mean value of 65.333 gm. Significantly maximum Biological yield per plant (78.833 gm) highest value  was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @ 400 mT. Similarly, the results of this investigation are in conformation with the findings and the results were reported by Nandini and Sridhara et al., (2019) in foxtail millet.
Seed yield per plot
It was presented the mean performance of seed yield per plot ranged from 401.76 gm to 660.48 gm with mean value of 517.44 gm. Significantly maximum seed yield per plot (660.48 gm) highest value was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @ 400 mT. The results were observed by Moobe, Martha et al., (2014) and findings of Rahem Djelal Belahcene Nabiha et al., (2020) on growth and grain yield in finger millet.
Seed yield per kg/ha
It was presented the mean performance of seed yield per kg/ha ranged from 100.44 kg to 165.12 kg with mean value of 129.36 kg. Significantly maximum seed yield per kg/ha (165.12 kg) highest value was recorded by T5 - Magnetic field @ 400 mT. The results were observed by Moobe, Martha et al., (2014) on growth and grain yield in finger millet. But Morphological differences in plants of Barley grown from treated seed were significantly lower than those of barlev grown from untreated seed. The decrease in yield might be related to the lack of sufficient soil moisture during the later stages of development of the early maturing plants grown from treated seed is indicated by the lower test weight of the crop produced by the treated seed.
Germination %
It was presented the mean performance of germination % ranged from 80.25% to 98.5% with mean value of 90.25%. Significantly maximum percentage of Germination % (98.5%) highest value was recorded by T4 - Magnetic field @ 200 mT. Similar findings were reported by Rajesh (2011) in finger millet. Germination ratios in bean and wheat seeds were reported by Cakmak et al., 2010; Carbonell et al., 2011.
Seedling length
It was presented the mean performance of seedling length  ranged from 9.733 cm to 13.131 cm with mean value of 11.51 cm. Significantly maximum seedling length (13.131 cm) highest value  was recorded and T0 - Control (9.733 cm) and found to be lowest value. Seed priming showed significantly good results over control for time taken to germination % root length and shoot length (Afzal et al., 2009) and the potential to improve the early seedling growth and nutrient contents of seedlings (Harshan et al., 2011) in Barley. Magnetic field treatments were used in agriculture to improve the germination and growth seedling. In this research, general results showed that the magnetically treated sorghum seed gave the significant effect on all germination and growth seedling parameters studied, where the best period to expose the seeds recorded in 6 hour treated seeds in all measurements parameters in comparision with untreated seed, except root length.
Dry weight
It was presented the mean performance of dry weight ranged from 0.00329 gm to 0.0524 gm with mean value of 0.02 gm. Significantly maximum dry weight (0.0524 gm) highest value was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @400 mT and T0 - control (0.00329 gm) and found to be lowest value. It might also due to result of better activity of mitochondrial enzymes accompanied by an increase of the oxygen consumption. The similar results were observed by Mahmoudi et al., (2012); Piri et al., (2009). An increase in the wet and dry weights of the treated plants was recorded with magnetized water was reported.
Vigour index I and II
It was presented the mean performance of vigour index I  ranged from (781.113  to 1267.138) and (0.268 to 5.058) with the mean value of 1038.035 and 1.825 Significantly maximum Vigour index I and II (1267.138 and 5.058) highest value  was recorded by T5 - magnetic field @ 400 mT and found to be best among all treatments. Seed priming showed significantly better results over control for time taken to 50% germination, final germination %, root length, shoot length and vigour indices I and II (Afzal et al., 2009). Similar results of agro-morphological characters in finger millet observed by Patil et al., (2019).
I am sincerely thankful to Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding and Department of Physics, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj and I convey my gratitude, to my advisor, co- advisor and sac members for assistance and support during whole period of  my research work and for providing facilities of laboratory and research plot for conducting my research and also for successful completion.
It is evident from the above that seed priming have significant role for all lab and field characters studied. Treatment T5 (magnetic field @ 400 mT) was found significantly superior for most of all lab parameters in comparison to other treatment combinations as well as T0 control is lowest and at par value to all other treatments in kodo millet. The profitable effect of the magnetic field was demonstrated not only in laboratory experiments but also in field experiments (Rochalska, 1998). This effect was more visible for the seeds of stenothermal plant, such as maize and barley germinating at low temperature. Germination ability at pre-mature stages of this process rise significantly. Hence, magnetic field treatment can be recommended as a seed priming treatment of Kodo millet and other minor millets for improving the seed quality, germination and yield of millets.

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