Standardization of Different Pre-sowing Seed Treatments on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Kodo Millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum)

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-5755    | Article Id: A-5755 | Page : 162-169
Citation :- Standardization of Different Pre-sowing Seed Treatments on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Kodo Millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum).Indian Journal of Agricultural Research.2022.(56):162-169
Maddipoti Kavitha, Prashant Kumar Rai, B. Haritha, R. Karthik Kumar, A. Hemanth Kumar, Sarita Khandka kavithamaddipoti@gmail.com
Address : Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj-211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Submitted Date : 19-02-2021
Accepted Date : 22-06-2021


Background: Paspalum scorbiculatum is an annual crop and has superior nutritional properties including high micronutrients, dietary fiber content and gluten free. It has low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate diets help in prevention of Obesity, Diabeties and Cardiovascular diseases, etc. The current study was aimed to find out the suitable pre- sowing seed treatments for Kodo millet.
Methods: During the Kharif season 2019- 2020 total of 12 pre- sowing seed treatments were subjected with Botanicals, Magnetic and Electric fields, Thermal (Hot water) treatments and to fix the best treatment based on Seed Quality and Morphological traits of treated seeds. Morphological traits play an major role in crop growth and development where as, the present investigation was carried out with farmer’s variety in field (RBD) design in 3 replications and laboratory (CRD) design in 4 replications in order to “Standardization of different pre- sowing seed treatments on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of Kodo millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum). Seeds were subjected to various pre- sowing seed treatments viz. (T0) control, exposure to Magnetic field at 100 mT, 200 mT, 400 mT for 15,30 and 45 min; exposure to Electric field at 50 mA, 100 mA, 150 mA for 5,10, 15 min. Treatment with botanicals cow dung (5 gm) and Datura leaf extract (2.5 ml) for 12 hrs; Thermal hot water treatment at 46°C and 50°C for 10 min.
Result: Among all the treatments, T4-Magnetic field (200 mT) gave the best results in field and lab conditions of field emergence (98.610) and germination% (98.5), Magnetic field (400 mT) shown the good results and significantly higher values of all other yield (45.867, 78.833, 660.480, 165.120) and morphological traits as well as seed quality parameters like shoot length (86.925), root length (44.55), seedling length (13.131), vigour index- I and II (1267.138 and 5.058), fresh (0.343) and dry (0.0524) weight of seedlings and comparatively control (T0) was observed lowest to other treatments. As such, Magnetic treatment is quite effective for seedling establishment to overcome low germination and yield which helps in Qualitative and Quantiative seed production of Millets in sustainable agriculture.


Botanicals Morphological traits Magnetic and Electric fields Thermal


  1. Akatwijuka, R., Rubaihayo, P.R. and Odong, T.L. (2016). Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces of southwestern highlands of uganda African Crop Science Journal. ISSN 1021 9730/. 24(2): 179- 190.
  2. Aladjadjiyan, A. (2002). Study of the influence of magnetic field on some biological characteristics of Zea mays. J. Central Eur. Agric. 3(2): 89-94.
  3. Afzal, I., Shahid, A., Qasim, M., Basra, S.M.A. and Shahid, M. (2009). Does halopriming improve germination and Seedling Vigour in marigold (Tagestus species)? Seed Science and Technology. 37: 436-445.
  4. Balasubramanian, S. (2013). Processing of Millets. Paper presented National Seminar on Recent Advances in processing, utilization and nutritional impact of small millets. Madurai Symposium, Thamukkam Grounds, Madurai, 13 september, 2013.
  5. Bhat, B.V., Tonapi, B.D., Rao, A., Singode, D., Santra, J.J., Johnson, editors, Proceedings of the International Millet Symposium and the 3rd International Symposium on Broomcorn Millet, Fort Collins, CO.8-13 Aug.2018. Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln. p. 24-26.
  6. Cakmak, T., Dumlupinar, R., Erdal, S. (2010). Acceleration of germination and early growth of wheat and bean seedlings grown under various magnetic field and osmotic conditions. Bio- electromagnetics. 2(31): 120-129.
  7. Carbonell, M.V., Mart´ınez, E., Amaya, J.M. (2000). Stimulation of germination in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by a static magnetic field. Electro Magneto biol. 19(1): 121-128.
  8. Chandrashekhara, S., Niranjan Raj, G. Manjunath, S. Deepak and H. Shekar Shetty (2010). Seed treatment with aqueous extract of Viscum album induces resistance to Pearl Millet downy mildew pathogen. Journal of Plant interactions. 5(4): 283-291.
  9. Chandel, G., Meena. R.K., Dubey, M. and Kumar, M. (2014). Nutritional properties of minor millets: neglected cereals with potentials to combat malnutrition. Current Science. 7: 1109-1111.
  10. Celestino C., Picazo, M.L., Toribio, M. (2000). Influence Of chronic exposure to an electromagnetic field on germination and early growth of Quercus suber seeds. Electro and magento- biology. 19(1): 115-120. 
  11. Carbonell, V. Florez, M. Martinez, E. Maqueda, R. Amaya, J.M. (2011). Study of stationary magnetic fields on initial growth of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. Seed Science and Technology. 39: 673-679.
  12. Djelal, R., Nabiha, B. and Noureddine, Z. (2020). Agronomic traits and yield performance variation in hulled and naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties for adapta-tion in Algeria. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. (54): 745- 750.
  13. Dossou- Aminon, I., Yêyinou, L.l., Arlette Adjatin,A. and Eben- Ezer B.K. 2015. Genetic divergence in northern Benin sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] landraces as revealed by agromorphological traits and selection of candidate genotypes. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. The Scientific World Journal Volume 2015, Article ID 916476.
  14. Elangovan, M., Jain, S.K. and Patel, N.V. (2013). Characterisation of sorghum germplasm collected from Gujarat. Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources. 26(1): 42-46.
  15. Florez, M., Carbonell, M.V. and Martinez, E. (2007). Exposure of maize seeds to stationary magnetic fields: Effects on germination and early growth. Environ. Expt. Botany. 59: 68-75.
  16. Ganapathy, K.N. (2017). Improvement in finger millet: Status and future prospects. In: Millets and Sorghum: Biology and genetic improvement. [J.V. Patil, editor], John Wiley and Sons. Chichester, UK. P. 87-111. Doi: 10.1002/978111913076 5.ch3
  17. Harsharn S.G. and Basant L.M. (2011). Magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea and chickpea seeds enhances early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings. Bio electromagnetics 32:58-65, 2011.
  18. Kalaraju K.N., Deva Kumar N., Nagaraja, Ningappa, K.B. (2009). Effect of methods of planting on growth and yield of finger millet genotypes under organic farming. Res. Crops. 10(1): 20-24.
  19. Kordas, L. (2002). The effect of magnetic field on growth, development and the yield of spring wheat, polish. J. Environ. Stud. 11(5): 527-530.
  20. Khafi, H.R., Ramani, B.B., Mehta, A.C. And Pethani, K.V. (2000). Effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and spacing on yield and economics of hybrid bajra. Crop Res. 20(3): 411-414.
  21. Martinez, E., Carbonell, M.V. and Amaya, J.M. (2000). A static magnetic field of 125mT stimulates the initial growth stages of barley (Hordenum vulgare L.). Electromagnetic. 19(3): 271-277.
  22. Martinez, E., Florez, M. and Carbonell, M.V. (2017). Stimulatory effect of the magnetic treatment on the germination of cereal seeds. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB). 2(1): 2456-1878.
  23. Mahmoudi, H., Massoud, R.B., Baatour, O., Tarchoune, I., Salah, I.B., Nasri, N., Abidi W., Kaddour, R., Hanoufa, A., Lachaal, M. and Ourghei, Z. (2012). Influence of different seed priming methods for improving salt stress tolerance in lettuce plants, Journal of Plant Nutrition 35: 1910-1922.
  24. MakkhanLal, Bora, K.K., Ramesh Verma and Yadav, P.C. (2007). Effect of in situ moisture conservation on productivity of pearlmillet in arid regions of Rajasthan under farmer’s conditions. Ann Arid Zone. 46(1): 91-93. 
  25. Michael, O., Ishaya, K., Joseph, A. (2016). Effects of intra-row spacing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) and cropping systems on growth and yields of soybean-pearl millet intercrop, in the Southern Guinea Savanna Nigeria. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 44: 78-99.
  26. Moobe, Martha, K. Nyang, Basweti, Getabu, Mwangi and Ondicho, (2014). Effect of plant density on growth and grain yield of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) under high potential conditions of southwest Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10(5): 261-268.
  27. Nandini, K.M and Sridhara, S. (2019). Response of growth, yield and quality parameters of foxtail millet Genotypes to different planting density. Int. J. Curr. Microbial. App. Sci. 8(02): 1765-1773 dot- https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas. 2019.802.208.
  28. Naidu BA, Rao KS. (1958). Effect on transplantation on ragi plant (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.). J.Indian Boi. Soc. 37(1): 194-199. 
  29. Narasimha Rao, D.V., damodaram, G., Rama Moorthy A.K. (1963). Preliminary studies on the proper time of sowing and plant population in irrigated ragi in Chittoor district. Andhra Agric. J. 15(2): 208-213. 
  30. Piri, M., Mahdieh, M.B., Olfati, J.A. and Peyvast, G. (2009). Germination and seedling development of cucumber are enhanced by priming at low temperature. International Journal of Vegetable Science. 15(3): 285-292.
  31. Pittman, U.J. and Ormrod, D.P. (1970). Physiological and chemical features of magnetically treated winter wheat seeds and resultant seedlings. Can. J. Plant Sci. 50(1): 211-217.
  32. Rajesh, K. (2011). System of Crop Intensification in finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn] Under irrigated condition. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ., Coimbatore.
  33. Rochalska, M. (1998). The influence of an altenative magnetic field on the quality of cereal seeds. International Wroclaw Symposium on Electromagnetic comparison 1/¥ 101-105.
  34. Sebastian, A., Vasudevan, S.N. and Sangeetha. I. Macha (2015). Seed Quality as influenced by Dormancy breaking treatments in Foxtail Millet Genotypes. (IJASR), ISSN (P): 2250-0057; 5(6): 177-182.
  35. S.E.A. Abd Ei Hamid, P.D. Bugaev (2020). Impact of seed treatments pre-sowing and organo- mineral fertilizer on spring Barley production. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. (54): 611-616.
  36. Sanjay patil, Vitthal kauthale, Santosh aagale, Mavanji pawar and Anjali nalawade (2019). Evaluation of finger millet (Eleusine coracona L. Gaertn.) accessions using agro morphological characters. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research (53): 624-627. 
  37. Sridevi, R. and Manonmani, V. (2016). Seed priming effect on physiological traits of kodo millet and barnyard millet. Int. J. Agric. Sci. Res. 6(2): 759-772.
  38. Upadhyaya, Reddy, V.G., H.D. and Gowda, C.L.L (2006). Characterization of World’s foxtail millet germ plasm. Collections for morphological traits. Int. Sorghum and millets Newsl. 47: 107-109.
  39. Ullah MJ, Karim M, Mia MS, Shamsuddoha M. and Begum NJ. (2005). Effect of nitrogen row spacing and potassium uptake pattern of foxtail millet. Karnataka J Agric Sci. 18(4): 896-902.
  40. Yadav, N., Chaudhary, k., Singh, A. and Gupta, A., (2013). Evaluation of hypo glycemic of kodo millet based food products in healthy subjects. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 3(2): 14-20.

Global Footprints