Effect of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates and Plant Density on Growth of Water Efficient Maize Variety under Different Field Conditions

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-574    | Article Id: A-574 | Page : 81-86
Citation :- Effect of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates and Plant Density on Growth of Water Efficient Maize Variety under Different Field Conditions.Indian Journal Of Agricultural Research.2021.(55):81-86
A.R. Adebayo, F.R. Kutu, E.T. Sebetha adebayoruth101@gmail.com
Address : Food Security and Safety Niche Area Research Group, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag x 2046, Mmabatho-2735, South Africa. 
Submitted Date : 1-06-2020
Accepted Date : 14-09-2020

Abstract

Background: In most areas where maize is planted, the growth is usually affected by low nitrogen and high plant density. An experiment was carried out during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 planting seasons to investigate the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates and plant densities on growth of water efficient maize under different field conditions. 
Methods: The experiment was laid out in split plot arrangement fitted into randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates. Measured growth parameters were plant height, chlorophyll content, leaf area, number of leaves and stem diameter. 
Result: Maize planted at Molelwane had tallest plant height (269.63 cm) than Taung. Maize sown at 33,333 plants/ha produced highest number of leaves (15.83) and highest chlorophyll content (59. 63 SPAD - units) was obtained in the plots fertilized with 240 kg N/ha. In this study, the plant density of 55,555 plants/ha and 240 kg N/ha can be recommended for cultivation of WEMA maize variety.

Keywords

Fertilizer Nitrogen Plant density Plant height WEMA maize

References

  1. Ahmad, M.H.A.B., Ahmad R, Iqbal J, Maqbool MN. (2012). Nutritional and physiological significance of potassium application in maize hybrid crop production. Pakisitan Journal of Nutrition. 11 (12) :187-202.
  2. Amanullah, H., Marwat, K., Shah P., Maula, N., Arifullah, S. (2009). Nitrogen levels and its time of application to influence leaf area, height and biomass of maize planted at low and high density. Pakisitan Journal of Botany. 41: 761-768.
  3. Amin, M.E-M.H. (2011). Effect of different nitrogen sources on growth, yield and quality of fodder maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 10: 17-23.
  4. Baloyi, T.C. (2012). Evaluation of selected industrially manufactured biological amendments for maize production, Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences: University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa’.
  5. Bertin , P., Gallais, A. (2000). Genetic variation for nitrogen use efficiency in a set of recombinant maize inbred lines. I. Agro physiological results. Maydica. 45: 53-66.
  6. Brekke, B., Edwards J, Knapp A. (2011) Selection and Adaptation to High Plant Density in the Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic Maize (Zea mays L.) Population: II. Plant Morphology. Crop Science. 51: 2344-2351.
  7. Carpici, E.B., Celik, N., Bayram, G. (2010). Yield and quality of forage maize as influenced by plant density and nitrogen rate. Turkey Journal of Field Crops. 15(2): 128-132.
  8. Eivazi, A., Habibi, F. (2013). Evaluation of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Corn (L.) Varieties. World Applied Sciences Journal. 21: 63-68.
  9. FAO. (2018). FAOSTAT database. Rome: FAO. Retrieved fromhttp://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data.
  10. Fischer, R.A., Byerlee, D., Edmeades, G.O. (2014). Crop yields and global food security: will yield increase continue to feed the world? ACIAR Monograph No. 158. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra. xxii + 634 pp. 
  11. Haarhoff, S.J, Kotzé, T.N, Swanepoel, P.A. (2020). A prospectus for sustainability of rainfed maize production systems in South Africa. Crop Science. 60: 14-28.
  12. Hokmalipour, S., Darbandi, M.H. (2011). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on chlorophyll content and other leaf indicate in three cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.). World Applied Sciences Journal. 15: 1780-1785.
  13. Mandić, V., Krnjaja, V., Bijelić, Z. ,Tomić, Z., Simić, A., Stanojković, A., Petričević, M., Caro-Petrović, V. (2015). The effect of crop density on yields of forage maize. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry. 31(4): 567-575.
  14. Mu, X., Chen Q., Chen F., Yuan L., Mi G. (2016) Within-Leaf Nitrogen Allocation in Adaptation to Low Nitrogen Supply in Maize during Grain-Filling Stage. Frontiers in Plant Science. 7: 1-11.
  15. Muranyi, E., Pepo, P. (2013). The effects of plant density and row spacing on the height of maize hybrids of different vegetation time and genotype. International Journal of Biological, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering. 7 (11): 681-684.
  16. Opoku, E. (2017). Effect of row width and plant population density on yield and quality of maize (Zea mays) silage. Master’s Thesis, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.
  17. Reddy, T.Y., Reddi, G.H.S (2004). Plant population, chapter VIII; pp.193-203. In: T.Y. Reddy and G.H.S. Reddi (eds.), Principles of Agronomy. Kalyani Publishers, Hyderabad, India.
  18. Sebetha, E.T., Modi, A.T. (2016). Maize growth in response to cropping system, site and nitrogen fertilization. Romanian Agricultural Research. 38: 311-318.
  19. Sen, S., Setter T., Smith, M. (2012). Maize root morphology and nitrogen-use efficiency - a review. Agricultural Reviews. 33: 16-26.
  20. Tajul, M.I., Alam, M.M., Hossain, S.M.M., Naher, K., Rafii, M.Y., Latif, M.A. (2013). Influence of plant population and nitrogen-fertilizer at various levels on growth and growth efficiency of maize. The Scientific World Journal. 2013: 1-9.
  21. Testa, G., Reyneri, A., Blandino, M. (2016). Maize grain yield enhancement through high plant density cultivation with different inter-row and intra-row spacings. European Journal of Agronomy. 72: 28-37.
  22. Tollenaar, M., (1992). Is low plant population a stress in maize? Maydica. 37: 305-311. 
  23. World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). (2016). World reference base for soil resources: a framework for international classification, correlation and accumulation. World Soil Resource No. 103, 2nd edition, FAO, Rome.
  24. Yada, G.L. (2011). Establishing optimum plant populations and water use in an ultra-fast maize hybrid (Zea Mays L.) under irrigation, PhD Thesis: University of the Free State, South Africa.

Global Footprints