- Al-Karaki, G. and Al-Momani N. (2011). Evaluation of some barley cultivars for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 7: 448-457.
- Ansari, Sh.T., Ravi, A., Ramana, J.V., Ganga, G . 2019. Voluntary intake and plane of nutrition of sheep fed hydroponic fodder varieties. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53: 1054-1058.
- Bekuma, A. (2019). Nutritional benefit and economic value of hydroponics fodder production technology in sustainable livestock production against climate change- A nini-review. Advances in Applied Sciences. 4(1): 23-25.
- Bilalis D., Kamariari, P.E., Karkanis, A., Efthimladou, A., Zorpas, A., Kakabouk, I. (2013). Energy inputs, output and productivity in organic and conventional maize and tomato production, under Mediterranean conditions. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 41(1): 190-194.
- DEE (Department of the Environment and Energy). (2018). Australian National Greenhouse Accounts: National Greenhouse Accounts Factors. July 2018. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Available online at http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/3.0/au.
- El-Morsy, A.T., Abul-Soud, M., Emam, M.S.A. (2013). Localized hydroponic green forage technology as a climate change adaptation under Egyptian conditions. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 9(6): 341-350.
- Emam, M.S.A. (2016). The Sprout Production and Water use Efficiency of some Barley Cultivars under Intensive Hydroponic System. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research. 5(2): 161-170.
- Firat Baran, M. and Gokdogan, O. (2014). Energy input-output analysis of barley production in Thrace region of Turkey. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science. 14 (11): 1255-1261.
- Ghazi, N., Al-Karaki, G., Al-Hashimi, M. (2012). Green Fodder Production and Water Use Efficiency of Some Forage Crops under Hydroponic Conditions. ISRN Agronomy. 1-5.
- Guney, M., Kale, C., Bolat, D., Deniz, S. (2016). Determination of the yield characteristics and in vitro digestibility of barleyforage harvested in different vegetation periods. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 50: 947-950.
- Houshyar, E. (2017). Environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production in Iran using life cycle assessment (LCA). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 15(2): 1-13.
- Kitani, O., Jungbluth, T., Peart, R.M., Ramdani, A. (1999). CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineers, Energy and Biomass Engineering. vol. 5, ASAE Publication, MI.
- Lal, R. (2004). Carbon emission from farm operation. Environment International. 30: 981-990.
- Maraseni, T.N, Cockfield, G., Apan, A. (2007). A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from inputs into farm enterprises in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 42: 11-19.
- Pishgar, K.S.H., Keyhani, A., Raûee, Sh., Sefeedpary, P. (2011). Energy use and economic analysis of corn silage production under three cultivated area levels in Tehran province of Iran. Energy. 36: 3335-3341.
- Riveroa, D.S., Villamil, A.M.S., Mahecha, O.M., Terán, A.M., Rivero, M.S., Navarro, A.M.S. (2016). Evaluation of the Effect ofTwo Types of Fertilizer on the Growth, Development and Productivity of Hydroponic Green Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) and Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) as a Biomass Source. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 50: 385-390.
- Shahin, S., Jafari, A., Mobli, H., Rafiee, S., Karimi, M. (2008). Effect of farm size on energy ratio for wheat production: A case study from Ardabil province of Iran. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science. 3(4): 604-608.
- Shama M, Saedi H, Nikpour Tehrani K, Morvarid A. (1989). Animal and poultery feeds and Methods of their storage (principals of animal and poultery feeds), 4th Ede., University of Tehran Publications [In Persian].
- Ziaei, S.M., Mazloumzadeh, S.M., Jabbary, M. (2015). A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 14(1): 19-25.
Submitted Date : 7-03-2020
Accepted Date : 2-05-2020