The present research was conducted to investigate the effect of PA on cluster bean and the results revealed a significant difference in growth of the plants as shown in Fig 1. For the appraisal of plant growth, it was observed that PA treatment enhanced plant length. At 15, 30 45 and 60 days, pranic treated plant growth was increased when compared to control but, the results were found to be insignificant (p>0.001). At 60 days of plant growth, pranic treated plant length was 92±6.3 cm, whereas the control plant length was 82.7±3.6 cm (Table 1). Hence, an increase of 10.64% was noticed in the pranic group at 60 days, when compared with control. Our results were in good agreement with that of Deka et al., (2015),
who have reported a cluster bean plant length of 83.63 cm at 60 days.
Fig 1: Clusterr bean plant. (A) Control )B) Pranic.
Table 1: Plant length of cluster beans.
The shoot length was observed to be enhanced on all the days (15, 30, 45 and 60 days) by PA treatment when compared to control and the results were found to be significant (p<0.001). The shoot length at 60 days was found to be 89.1±0.2cm, while for control it was 80.3±4.1cm (Table 2). An increase of 10.38% in shoot length was noticed in treated plants when compared with control.
Table 2: Shoot length of cluster beans.
The root length was observed to be increased for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days by PA treatment when compared to control and the results were found to be significant (p<0.001). The root length at 60 days was found to be 14.2±0.4cm, while for control it was 11.4±0.7 cm (Table 3). An increase of 21.87% in the root length was noticed in treated plants, against the control. A root length of 10.4±0.85 cm was reported by Ragavan et al., (2017)
from 60 days old cluster bean plants, which were in parallel to our current findings. Saritha et al., (2013)
reported a root length of 13.46±4.2 cm from 60-day old cluster bean plants, which again is in good agreement with our results.
Table 3: Root length of cluster beans.
The numbers of leaves at 60 day were more in treated plants (27±9.4) when compared to control (22.2±6.6) and the results were found to be significant (P<0.001) (Table 4). Thus, pranic had 19.51% more leaves, against the control. Deka et al., (2015)
reported 7.89 number of leaves in cluster beans from 30 days old plant, which is in good agreement with our current findings of 8 leaves.
Table 4: Number of leaves of cluster beans.
A similar trend was also observed in leaf length (Table 5) and leaf width (Table 6) of pranic, which showed higher values, when compared with control and the results were significant (P<0.001) and the percentage increase in pranic for leaf length was1.14%, while for leaf width it was 22.22%, when compared with control.
Table 5: Leaf length of cluster beans.
Table 6: Leaf width of cluster beans.
It was observed that the number of nodes was considerably higher in pranic treatment when compared to control and the results were found to be insignificant (p>0.001). The number of nodes at 60 days in pranic was 11.5±4.4, while in control it was 9.4±2.8 (Table 7). Thus an increase of 20% in the number of nodes in pranic plants was noticed. Similarly, the internodal length was also higher in pranic plants, when compared with control and the results were found to be significant (p<0.001). Pranic plants had 14% more internodal length (9.9±3.5 cm) than control (8.6±2.0 cm) at day 60 (Table 8).
Table 7: Number of nodes of cluster beans.
Table 8: Internodal length of cluster beans.
The number of flowers on day 45 in treated was found to be 6.3±1.8, while for control it was 4.3±2.0 and the results were found to be significant (p<0.001). Thus, pranic had 37.7% more flowers than control. Karthikeyan et al., (2014)
reported 7.2±4.7 number of flowers in cluster bean, which is in good agreement with our current findings. Fruiting in pranic was found to be enhanced when compared with control and the results were significant (p<0.001). At 60 days, pranic had 10.2±3.5 number of fruits, while the control had only 4±1.3 (Table 9). Thus, an increase of 87% in fruiting in pranic is noticed, against the control.
Table 9: Number of fruits of cluster beans.
Various biofield treatments including Pranic Agriculture (Prasad and Jois, 2020)
, meditation (Pandey et al., 2015),
biofield (Lee and Wu, 2019)
, chi energy (Bai et al., 2000)
involves interaction with energy fields of the plants, which are performed by trained healers. These healing energies when, applied on plants, has been proven to enhance growth and improve yield. For instance, Lee and Wu (2019)
using biofield treatment on lettuce and bok choy plants obtained higher vegetative growth, increase in chlorophyll and carotenoids in treated plants, when compared with control.
Bean plants grown under pyramid-shaped structure have been reported to have larger leaves and a longer stem when compared to control. Also, the pyramid group had 19% more plant biomass than control. (Rubik, 2016)
. Pea and wheat seeds when treated with chi energy, germinated faster, against the control (Bai et al., 2000).
Groundnut and wheat seedlings, when treated with Brahma Kumaris Raja Yoga Meditation, revealed enhanced germination, increase in shoot and root length, improved vigor when compared to non-treated seeds (Pandey et al., 2015).
Earlier reports on Pranic agriculture studies have noticed an increase in shoot length, stem diameter, root length and number of leaves. Prasad and Jois (2020)
reported an increase in shoot length by 30%, root length by 40% and number of leaves by 49% in pranic treated papaya against the control. In pranic treated drumstick, an increase in shoot length by 31%, root length by 29% and number of leaflets by 40% was observed (Prasad and Jois, 2019)
. Increase in plant height by 18.5%, stem diameter by 12% and yield by 31% was reported in pranic treated tomatoes when compared with control (Jois et al., 2016).
Healers have been shown to produce large magnetic fields from their hands (Beseme et al., 2018).
Magnetic fields have been shown to alter enzyme activity and will exert an effect by altering the pH of the enzyme solution (Strickland and Boylan, 2010)
. Seeds of beans when treated with distant intent healing along with pyramid, germinated faster since pyramidal structures may act as psychotronic generators that work together with consciousness and a form of energy
to produce advantageous effects on plants (Rubik, 2016)
Healing energy may influence the structure of a germination correlated gene, alter the structure of cellular organs like mitochondria and influence the metabolism of the cell, altering the molecular structure of treated cells, affect nucleotide polymerization, gene expression and enzyme activity. When pranic agriculture protocol was applied to seeds, the Pranic energy level in seeds would be increased thereby resulting in a greater germination percentage. It should also be noted that the application of qi
energy would help in the increased rate of cellular growth and division. It also increases ATPase
activity during seed germination of the dividing cells. This results in more energy supply to the cells during cell division, growth and differentiation probably resulting in enhanced growth of pranic treated papaya. However, the exact mechanism needs to be investigated in the future.