Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.60

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 54 issue 3 (june 2020) : 277-284

Field Evaluation of Unsteady Drain Spacing Equations for Optimal Design of Subsurface Drainage System under Waterlogged Vertisols of Maharashtra

S.D. Rathod, S.D. Dahiwalkar, S.D. Gorantiwar, M.G. Shinde
1Agricultural Research Station, Kasbe Digraj, Sangli- 416 305, Maharashtra, India.
Cite article:- Rathod S.D., Dahiwalkar S.D., Gorantiwar S.D., Shinde M.G. (2020). Field Evaluation of Unsteady Drain Spacing Equations for Optimal Design of Subsurface Drainage System under Waterlogged Vertisols of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 54(3): 277-284. doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-5340.
The field experiment  was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Kasbe Digraj, Dist. Sangli during Adsali sugarcane season of 2012-13 to 2013-14. The experiment was conducted by installing subsurface drainage system with 10, 20, 30 and 40 m drain spacing and 1 m drain depth. In view of different costs and effectiveness of subsurface drainage associated with the varying depths and spacings, field evaluation of unsteady drain spacing equations was important for finding out the optimal drain spacing equation among various equations. The field evaluation of unsteady drain spacing equations revealed that the van Schilfgaarde, Hammad, Modified Glover, Guyon and Integrated Hooghoudt’s equation performed satisfactory for estimation of water table depths among seven unsteady drain spacing equations. The Glover-Dumm and Modified Glover-Dumm’s equations were not performed satisfactory for estimation of water table depths. Among unsteady drain spacing equations, van Schilfgaarde’s equation performed better and hence recommended for water table depth estimation and in turn for optimal design of subsurface drainage system under waterlogged Vertisols of Maharashtra.
  1. Bouwer, H. and van Schifgaarde, J. (1963). Simplified method of predicting fall of water table in drained land. Transactions of ASAE. 6(4): 288-296.
  2. Buckland, G.D., Sommerfeldt, T.G. and Harker, D.B. (1987). A field comparison of transient drain spacing equations in a Southern Alberta lacustrine soil. Transactions of the ASABE. 30(1): 0137-0142.
  3. Chandra, S.R. and Shyamsundar, K. (2007). Performance evaluation of subsurface drainage system under unsteady state flow conditions in coastal saline soils of Andhara Pradesh, India. Proceedings of USCID fourth International conference, pp: 303-312.
  4. Dumm, L.D. (1954). Drain spacing formulae, determining depth and spacing of subsurface drains in irrigated lands. Journal of Agricultural Engineering ASAE. 35: 726-730.
  5. Firake, N.N. (1987). Field evaluation of steady and transient drain spacing equations. Unpublished M. Tech. Thesis, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar (M.S.).
  6. Guyon, G. (1964). Considerations sur I’hudraulique des nappes de drainage par canalisations souterraines (Dutch language). Bul. Tech. du Genie Rural. 65.
  7. Hammad, H.Y. (1962). Depth and spacing of tile drain systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division, Proceedings of ASCE. 88(IR 1): 15-34.
  8. Hussein, M.H. (2015). Drainage design equation for Egyptian Vertisols. International Journal of Current Engineering and Research. 5(4): 2550-2556. 
  9. Kumar, R., Bhakar, S.R. and Singh, P.K. (2013). Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics and management strategies of subsurface drainage system in Indira Gandhi Canal Command. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal. 15(2): 1-9.
  10. Lal, C., Rao, K.V. G.K., Sewa Ram and Chauhan, H.S. (1989). Comparison of sub-surface drainage theories with field experiments in waterlogged saline area in Haryana. ISAE Journal of Agricultural Engineering. 26(2): 118-130.
  11. Moody, W. T. (1966). Nonlinear differential equation of drain spacing. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division, Proceedings of ASAE. 92 (IR2): 1-9.
  12. Naftchally, A. D., Mirlatifi, S. and Asgari, A. (2014). Comparison of steady and unsteady state drainage equations for determination of subsurface drain spacing in paddy fields: a case study in Northern Iran. Paddy and Water Environment. 12(1): 103-111(9).
  13. Nasralla, M.R. (2007). Eleventh International Water Technology Conference. IWTC11 2007, Sharm EI-Sheikh, Egypt: 439-447.
  14. Pali, A.K. (2013). Evaluation of non-steady subsurface drainage equations for heterogeneous saline soils: A case study. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 6(5): 45-52.
  15. Pali, A.K. (2015). Performance of subsurface tube drainage system in saline land: A case study. Journal of Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, 96(2): 69-175.
  16. Sarwar, A. and Feddes, R. A. (2000). Evaluating Drainage Design Parameters for the Fourth Drainage Project, Pakistan by using SWAP Model: Part II- Modeling Results. Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 14(4): 281-299.
  17. Schuh, W. M. (2008). Potential effects of subsurface drainage on water appropriation and the beneficial use of water in North Dakota. Water Resources Investigation No. 45, North Dakota State Water Commission, p.13.
  18. Singh, K.M., Singh, O.P., Chauhan, H.S. and Ram, S. (1992). Comparison of sub surface drainage theories for drainage of waterlogged saline soils of Haryana state, India. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 8(5): 653-657.
  19. Singh, P.K., Singh, O.P., Jaiswal, C.S. and Chauhan, H.S. (1999). Subsurface drainage of a three layered soil with slowly permeable top layer. Journal of Agricultural Water Management. 42(1): 97-109.
  20. Skaggs, R. W., Kriz, G. J. and Bernal, R. (1973). Field evaluation of transient drain spacing equations. Transactions of ASAE. 16(3): 590-595.
  21. Taylor, G.S. (1960). Drainable porosity evaluation from outflow measurements and its use in drawdown equations. Soil Science. 90: 38-345.
  22. Tripathi, V.K., Gupta, S.K. and Kumar, P. (2008). Performance evaluation of subsurface drainage system with the strategy to reuse and disposal of its effluent for arid region of India. Journal of Agricultural Physics. 8: 43-50.
  23. Van Schilfgaarde, J. (1963). Design of tile drainage for falling water table. Irrigation and Drainage Division. 89 (IR2): 1-11.
  24. Van Schilfgaarde, J. (1964). Transient design of drainage systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division. Proceedings of ASCE. 91(IR3): 9-22.
  25. Van Schilfgaarde, J. (1965). Limitations of Dupuit-Forchheimer theory in drainage. Transactions of ASAE. 8(4): 515-519.
  26. Yousef, S. M., Ghaith, M. A., Abdel Ghany, M. B. and Soliman, K. M. (2016). Evaluation and modification of some equations used in subsurface drainage systems. Paper presented in 19th IWTC at Sharm ElSheikh, 21-23 April, 2016. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)