Effectiveness and Efficiency of Gamma Rays and Electron Beam in M2 Generation of Anna (R) 4 Rice Mutants

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-5334    | Article Id: A-5334 | Page : 516-520
Citation :- Effectiveness and Efficiency of Gamma Rays and Electron Beam in M2 Generation of Anna (R) 4 Rice Mutants.Indian Journal Of Agricultural Research.2020.(54):516-520
R. Lalitha, A. Mothilal, P. Arunachalam, C. Vanniarajan, N. Senthil, J. Souframanien, G. Hemalatha arunachalp@gmail.com
Address : Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai-625 104, Tamil Nadu, India.
Submitted Date : 8-07-2019
Accepted Date : 1-01-2020


A study was conducted to assess the chlorophyll and viable mutation frequency in M2 generation of Anna(R) 4 rice variety induced through gamma rays and electron beam radiations with different dosages viz., 200Gy, 250Gy, 300Gy and 350Gy. The results showed that chlorophyll and viable mutation frequency was higher in electron beam (8.62 and 22.30) compared to gamma rays (8.11 and 13.40). The electron beam was found to have higher mean effectiveness (0.059) compared to gamma rays (0.04), while higher efficiency (0.723) was observed in gamma rays and fairly less efficiency was reported in electron beam (0.540). However, higher frequencies of viable and useful mutants were obtained in electron beam. Therefore the electron beam can be used as an alternate source for physical mutagen to produce useful mutants in rice improvement.


Chlorophyll mutants Effectiveness Efficiency Electron beam Gamma rays Rice


  1. Ando, A. (1970). Mutation induction in rice by radiation combined with chemical protectants and mutagens. In: Rice Breeding with Induced Mutations II. IAEA. Vienna. P. 1-5.
  2. Awan, M.A and Bari, G. (1979). Mutagenic effects of fast neutrons and gamma rays in rice. The Nucleus. 16: 33-38.
  3. Bevins, M. Yang, C. M., Markwell, J. (1992). Characterization of chlorophyll deficient mutant of sweet clover (Melilotus alba). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 30: 327–331.
  4. Blixt, S. (1972). Mutation genetics in Pisum. Agric. Hort. Genet. 30: 1-293.
  5. Blixt, S. and Gottascalk, W. (1975). Mutation in leguminosae. Agric. Hort. Genet. 33: 33-85.
  6. Chaturvedi and Singh, V.P. (1990). Mutation breeding in pigeonpea. In: Genetic Improvement of Pulse Crops. Vol. I. [Jafar Nizam; Irfan A. Khan and S.A. Farooq (eds)]. Premier Publishing House. 800 Kothi Hyderabad.
  7. Gaul, H. (1964). Mutations in plant breeding. Radiation Botany. 4: 155-232.
  8. Goyal, S. and Khan, S. (2010). Differential response of single and combined treatment in moist seeds of urdbean. Indian Journal of Botanical Research. 6(1-2): 183-188.
  9. Gunkel, J.E. and Sparrow, A.H. (1961). Ionizing radiations: biochemical, physiological and morphological aspects of their effect on plants, in: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, [W. Ruhland (ed.)], Springer, Berlin, p. 555-611.
  10. Gustafsson, A. (1940). The mutation system of the chlorophyll apparatus. (K. Fysiogr. Sällsk. Lund Förh.) N.F. 51: 1–40.
  11. Khan, M.H. and Tyagi, S.D. (2010). Induced morphological mutants in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Frontiers of Agriculture in China. 4(2): 175-180.
  12. Konzak C.F., Nilan, R.A., Wagner, J., Foster, R.J. (1965). Efficient chemical mutagenesis. Radiation Botany 5 (Suppl.): 49-70.
  13. Levine, R.P. (1972). Interactions between nuclear and organelle genetic systems. In: Evolution of Genetic systems. Brook Haven Symposium Biology. 23: 503-533.
  14. Madhusudana Rao, G. and Manmada Rao, V. (1983). Mutagenic efficiency, effectiveness and factor of effectiveness of physical and chemical mutagens in rice. Cytologia. 48: 427-436.
  15. Maluszynski, M. Ahloowalia, B.S. Sigurbjornsson, B. (1995). Application of in vivo and in vitro mutation techniques for crop improvement. Euphytica. 85(1–3): 303–315.
  16. Mikaelsen, K., Kiss, I., Osone, K. (1968). Some effects of fast neutrons and gamma radiations on rice. In: Neutron Irradiation of Seeds II, IAEA, Vienna. p. 49-54.
  17. Muduli, K.C. and Mishra, R.C. (2007). Efficacy of mutagenic treat- -ments in producing useful mutants in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) Gaertn. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 67: (3): 232- 237.
  18. Reddy, V.R.K. and Annadurai, M. (1991). Chlorophyll mutants in lentil. Frequency and segregation. Cytology and Genetics. 26: 31 -3 7.
  19. Sharma, S.K. and Sharma, B. (1979). Leaf mutations induced with NMU and gamma rays in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik). Current Science. 48: 916-917.
  20. Toker, C. and Cagirgan, M.I. (2004). Spectrum and frequency of induced mutations in chickpea, Int. Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter. 11: 8-10.
  21. Walles, B. (1973). Plastid structures and mutations. In: Structure and Function of Chloroplasts, Gibba Med, Springer Verlag New York, p. 51-55.
  22. Wani, M.R., Khan, S., Kozgar, M.I. (2011). Induced chlorophyll mutations. I. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of EMS, HZ and SA in mungbean. Frontiers of Agriculture in China. 5(4): 514-518.
  23. Wildman, S.G. (1973). An approach towards ascertaining the function of chloroplast DNA in tobacco plants. In: Autonomy of Bio-genesis, [Linnae N K and Smillie A W (eds)], AE Rube Co. New York.
  24. Zhu H, Xu J, Li S, Sun X, Yao S., Wang S. (2008). Effect of high energy- pulse-electron beam radiation on biomolecules. Science in China Series B-Chemistry. 51: 86-91.

Global Footprints