Enhancement of Drought Tolerance in Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin, Benth) by Modifying Micro Climate and Frequency of Fertilization

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-510    | Article Id: A-510 | Page : 501-505
Citation :- Enhancement of Drought Tolerance in Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin, Benth) by Modifying Micro Climate and Frequency of Fertilization.Indian Journal of Agricultural Research.2020.(54):501-505
Nasruddin, Erwin Masrul Harahap, Chairani Hanum, Luthfi Aziz Mahmud Siregar nasruddin.fp@unimal.ac.id
Address : Program Study of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Jl. Dr. A. Sofyan No. 3 Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia.
Submitted Date : 23-11-2019
Accepted Date : 6-03-2020


Drought stress is one of abiotic stresses and has caused a significant deterioration in growth and yield of patchouli. This research was conducted in Reuleut Timu Village, Muara Batu District, Aceh Utara Regency, from July to December 2016, using split plot design in a Randomized Block Design with three replications. The main plot was mulch treatments (without mulch, rice straw mulch and black silver plastic mulch). The subplots were treated with different frequency of fertilizer application (once, twice and three times). The results revealed that the application of rice straw mulch has reduced the effects of drought stress, suppressed the soil temperature fluctuations, maintained soil moisture, which resulted in an increase of patchouli growth. Different frequency of fertilizer application did improve the oil yield, proline accumulation and drought resistance.


Drought stress Mulch Proline Soil moisture content Soil temperature


  1. Abhivyakti, Kumari, P., Ojha, R.K. and Job, M. (2016). Effect of plastic mulches on soil temperature and tomato yield inside and outside the polyhouse. Agricultural Science Digest. 36(4): 333-336. 
  2. Atanasova, E. (2008). Effect of nitrogen sources on the nitrogenous forms and accumulation of amino acid in head cabbage. Plant, Soil and Environment. 54(2): 66-71. 
  3. Awal, M.A. and Sultana, F. (2011). Microclimatic alteration and productivity of mustard crop as induced by indigenous mulches. International Journal of Agricultural Research. 6(12): 819-829. 
  4. Balwinder, S., Eberbach, P.L., Humphreys, E. and Kukal, S.S. (2011). The effect of rice straw mulch on evapotranspiration, transpiration and soil evaporation of irrigated wheat in Punjab, India. Agricultural Water Management. 98(12): 1847-1855. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011. 07.002
  5. Basu, S., Ramegowda, V., Kumar, A. and Pereira, A. (2016). Plant adaptation to drought stress. F1000Research 2016, 5 (F1000 Faculty Rev):1554 Last updated: 17 JUL 2019. 
  6. Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P. and Treare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determi- -nation of free proline for water stress studies. Journal Plant and Soil. 39: 205-207. 
  7. Bhardwaj, R.L. (2013). Effect of mulching on crop production under rainfed condition - A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 34(3): 188-197. 
  8. Buerkert, A., Bationo, A. and Dossa, K. (2000). Mechanisms of residue mulch-induced cereal growth increase in West Africa. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 64 (January-February), 346-358. 
  9. Chakraborty, D., Nagarajan, S., Aggarwal, P., Gupta, V., Tomar, R., Garg, R., . . . Sarma, K.S. (2008). Effect of mulching on soil and plant water status and the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a semi-arid environment. Agricultural Water Management. 95(12): 1323-1334. 
  10. Chen, S.Y., Zhang, X.Y., Pei, D., Sun, H.Y. and Chen, S.L. (2007). Effects of straw mulching on soil temperature, evaporation and yield of winter wheat: field experiments on the North China Plain. Annals of Applied Biology. 150(3): 261-268. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2007.00144.x
  11. Efendi, R. (2009). The corn genotype responses are tolerant and susceptible to drought stress in the germination phase. Paper presented at the Proseding Seminar Nasional Serealia 2009. (in Indonesian).
  12. Elewa, T.A., Sadak, M.S. and Saad, A.M. (2017). Proline treatment improves physiological responses in quinoa plants under drought stress. Bioscience Research. 14(1): 21-33. 
  13. Farahani, A., Lebaschi, H., Hussein, M., Hussein, S.A., Reza, V.A. and Jahanfar, D. (2008). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, different levels of phosphorous and drought stress on water use efficiency, relative water content and proline accumulation ratenof Coriander (Coriandrum sativum, L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2(6): 125-131. 
  14. Ghosh, P.K., Dayal, D., BAndyopadhyay, K.K. and Mohanty, M. (2006). Evaluation of straw and polythene mulch for enhancing productivity of irrigated summer groundnut. Field Crops Research. 99: 76-86. 
  15. Hamdani, J.S. (2009). Influence of mulch species on growth and yield of three potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) planted in medium. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia. 37(1): 14-20 (In Indonesian). 
  16. Jawad, M.M., Al-Shahwany, A.W. and Khudhair, S.H. (2015). Effect of Bio-chemical Fertilizer on Proline Accumulation, Catalase and Peroxidase Enzymes Activity in Leaves of Two Wheat Cultivars (Ipa99 and Rabyaa) Under Water Deficit Stress. Iraqi Journal of Science. 56(2B): 1350-1358. 
  17. Kumar, A. and Sharma, N. (2016). Characterization of olive cultivars for drought tolerance potential under rainfed conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 50(5): 440-445. 
  18. Kumar, V., Sharma, J.C., Kumar, M., Singh, S. and Kumar, A.N. (2019). Mulches and nutrients affect the soil environment, crop performance and profitability of cauliflower. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 29(1): 194-204. 
  19. Kusumastuti, A. (2013). Soil microbial activity, growth and yield of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) At various levels of organic matter and soil moisture in Ultisols. Jurnal Peneltian Pertanian Terapan. 13(2): 78-84 (In Indonesian). 
  20. Lestari, M.W., Arfarita, N., Sharma, A. and Purkait, B. (2019). The effect of nitrogen fertilization level on growth, yield and nodulation of Indigofera zollingeriana at early nursery stage. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 53(2): 223-227. doi: 10.18805/IJARe.A-369
  21. Lu, S., Chen, C., Wang, Z., Guo, Z. and Li, H. (2009). Physiological responses of somaclonal variants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon) to drought stress. Plant Cell Rep. 28(3): 517-526. doi: 10.1007/    s00299-008-0649-z
  22. Mafakheri, A., Siosemardeh, A., Bahramnejad, B., Struik, P. and Sohrabi, Y. (2010). Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4(8): 580-585. 
  23. Maheswari, J., Bose, J., Sangeetha, S., Sanjutha, S. and Sathya Priya, R. (2008). Irrigation regimes and N levels influence chlorophyll, leaf area index, proline and soluble protein content of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L). International Journal of Agricultural Research. 3(4): 307-316. 
  24. Mahfouz, S.A. and Sharaf-Eldin, M.A. (2007). Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics. 21(4): 361-366. 
  25. Marwein, Y. and Ray, L.I.P. (2019). Performance of rajma (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars under organic mulches in Meghalayan Plateau of North Eastern India. Legume Research. 42(1): 114-118. 
  26. Putri, D. K.Y., Kusuma, H.S., Syahputra, M.E., Parasandi, D. and Mahfud, M. (2017). The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Paper presented at the Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Conf. Series; 101: 012013. 
  27. Ramakrishna, A., Tam, H.M., Wani, S.P. and Long, T.D. (2006). Effect of mulch on soil temperature, moisture, weed infestation and yield of groundnut in northern Vietnam. Field Crops Research. 95(2): 115-125. 
  28. Scott, L.C. (2007). Impact of mulches on landscape plants and the environment- A Review. Journal Environmental Horticulture. 25(4): 239-249. 
  29. Singh, M. and Guleria, N. (2012). Effect of cultivars and fertilizer levels on growth, yield and quality of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.) under shaded condition. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 21(2): 174-177. 
  30. Swamy, M.K., Balasubramanya, S. and Anuradha, M. (2010). In vitro multiplication of Pogostemon cablin Benth. through direct regeneration. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9 (14): 2069-2075. 
  31. Syakir, M. and Gusmani. (2012). The influence of potassium fertilizer sources on the production and quality of patchouli oil. Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri (Industrial Crops Research Journal). 18(2): 60 - 65 (In Indonesian). 
  32. Uwah, D.F. and Iwo, G.A. (2011). Effectiveness of organic mulch on the productivity of maize (Zea Mays, L.) and weed growth. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 21(3): 525-530. 
  33. Wahyuni, F.Y., Soeparjono, S. and Usmadi. (2011). The effect of dosage of nitrogen fertilizer on biomass production and essential oil of two varieties of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin, Benth). Paper presented at the Seminar Nasional Strategi Reduksi dan Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim dalam Bidang Pertanian, Yogyakarta. (in Indonesian).

Global Footprints