Identifying F2 Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Trees for Their Dura, Pisifera and Tenera Types using Fruit Morphology and SSR Markers

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-502    | Article Id: A-502 | Page : 399-403
Citation :- Identifying F2 Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Trees for Their Dura, Pisifera and Tenera Types using Fruit Morphology and SSR Markers.Indian Journal Of Agricultural Research.2020.(54):399-403
W. Soonsuwon, T. Eksomtramage, K. Nakkanong, N. Songsri, H. Kaewsrisom
Address : Agricultural Innovation and Management Division, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand. 
Submitted Date : 8-11-2019
Accepted Date : 22-02-2020


Oil palm trees can be identified according to fruit traits into dura, pisifera and tenera types. DNA markers associated with shell thickness can be used to identify fruit traits at the seedling stage of an oil palm. The purpose of this study was to discover fruit morphology and SSR markers for identifying dura, pisifera and tenera oil palms. The results show that the tenera had a ring of fibers enclosing the kernel, but the dura had no such ring of fibers. The tenera had thicker shell and more mesocarp per fruit than the dura. The markers, MF233033 and MF233056, were found to distinguish between the pisifera and dura or tenera types. But they were found to not clearly distinguish between the dura and tenera types. These results suggest that fruit morphology can be used for identification of fruit traits of oil palm better than these SSR markers.


Dura Fruit morphology Oil palm Pisifera SSR marker Tenera


  1. Abdullah, N., Rafii Yusop, M., Ithnin, M., Saleh G. and Latif, M.A. (2011). Genetic variability of oil palm parental genotypes and performance of its’ progenies as revealed by molecular markers and quantitative traits. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 334(4): 290–299.
  2. Bassam, B.J., Caetano–Anollés, G. and Gresshoff, P.M. (1991). Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry. 196: 80–83. 
  3. Beirnaert, A. and Vanderweyen, R. (1941). Contribution a l’étude génétique et biométrique des variétés d’Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Publication INEAC. Série Scientifique, 27.
  4. Billotte N., Risterucci, A. M., Barcelos, E., Noyer, J. L., Amblard, P. and Baurens, F.C. (2001). Development, characterisation and across-taxa utility of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) microsatellite markers. Genome. 44: 413–425.
  5. Billotte, N., Marseillac, N., Risterucci, A.M., Adon, B., Brottier, P., Baurens, F.C., Singh, R., Herra, A., Asmady, H., Billot, C., Amblard, P., Durand–Gasselin, T., Courtois, B., Asmono, D., Cheah, S.C., Rohde, W., Ritter, E. and Charrier, A. (2005). Microsatellite–based high density linkage map in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 110: 754–765.
  6. Chotewattanasak, A. and Eksomtramage, T. (2008). Identification parent–offspring relation in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) using microsatellite markers. Agricultural Science Journal. 39(3) (Suppl.): 65–68.
  7. Doyle, J.J. (1990). Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus. 12: 13–15.
  8. Hardon, J.J. (1976). Oil palm. In : Evolution of Crop Plants, London: Longman. [N.W. Simmonds (Ed)], (pp. 225–229).
  9. Kavya K., Shyamalamma, S. and Gayatri, S. (2019). Morphological and molecular genetic diversity analysis using SSR markers in Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) genotypes for pulp colour. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 53(1):    8-16.
  10. Mayes S., Jack, P.L., Corley, R.H.V. and Marshall, D.F. (1997). Construction of a RFLP genetic linkage map for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Genome. 40(1): 116–122.
  11. Moretzsohn, M.C., Nunes, C.D.M., Ferreira, M.E. and Grattapaglia, D. (2000). RAPD linkage mapping of the shell thickness locus in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 100: 63–70.
  12. Sao, M.K., Nair, S.K., Verulkar, S.B., Saxena, R.R. and Nanda, H.C. (2015). Molecular profiling and genetic diversity of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes using ISSR and SSR markers. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 48(1): 373–376.
  13. Sari, W.K., Nualsri, C., Junsawang, N. and Soonsuwon, W. (2019). Heterosis studies for yield and agronomic traits in Thai upland rice. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 53(3): 255–262.
  14. Sathish, D.K. and Mohankumar, C. (2007). RAPD markers for identifying oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) parental varieties (dura and pisifera) and the hybrid tenera. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 6: 354–358.
  15. Thawaro, S. and Te–chato, S. (2009). Application of molecular markers in the hybrid verification and assessment of somaclonal variation from oil palm propagated in vitro. Science Asia. 35: 142–149.
  16. Thawaro, S. and Te–chato, S. (2010). Verification of legitimate tenera oil palm hybrids using SSR and propagation of hybrids by somatic embryogenesis. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology. 32: 1–8.
  17. Urairong, H., Wongsri, O. and Tanaka, N. J. (2017). Molecular markers for analysis of genetics diversity and identification of oil palm hybrid varieties. Thai Agricultural Research Journal. 35(2): 117-135.
  18. Yongyut, C. (2002). Phenotypic variation in a mixed F2 population of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Master thesis, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.

Global Footprints