Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.60

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 50 issue 5 (october 2016) : 398-405

Effect of PEG mediated water stress on solute accumulation, relative water content, biomass and antioxidant enzymes in rice

Ramadevi Kundur*, Papi Reddy .T, Manohar Rao. D
1<p>Department of Genetics, Osmania University,&nbsp;Hyderabad,500 007, Telangana, India.</p>
Cite article:- Kundur* Ramadevi, .T Reddy Papi, D Rao. Manohar (2016). Effect of PEG mediated water stress on solute accumulation, relative water content, biomass and antioxidant enzymes in rice . Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 50(5): 398-405. doi: 10.18805/ijare.v0iOF.3759.

In rice, several cultivated and upland varieties need to be assessed and analyzed for drought tolerance traits which could be used in screening and breeding programs for drought tolerance. Hence, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of water deficits in two rice cultivars and thereby analyze the role of several physiological traits useful in rice breeding programs for drought tolerance. The rice varieties Tellahamsa (TH) and N22 were screened for tolerance to drought. A comparative study was done subjecting them to PEG mediated water stress. Accumulation of solutes, i.e., proline, total free aminoacids and sugars; biomass production, Relative Water Content (RWC) and the levels of  antioxidant enzymes, viz., Catalase (CAT), Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX), Glutathione Reductase(GR), and Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) were analyzed in response to water stress. Maximum proline accumulation was seen within 24hrs of stress, after 10 days TH decreased its proline to one-third, whereas in N22 doubled. Although amino acids doubled within 24hrs, gradually they depleted in N22. This may be due to conversion of aminoacids into proline which could be the most compatible solute. Sugars increased within 24hrs, but were depleted in 10days in both. In TH, the shoot and root biomass decreased, whereas in N22 there was a significant increase in root biomass. Shoot and root RWC of N22 was higher than TH under stress. GR increased in both TH and N22, APX and SOD increased only in N22. Proline accumulation, increase of root biomass and  antioxidant enzymes such as APX or SOD during water stress are contributing to drought tolerance and could be used in screening for drought tolerance.

  1. Abdalla, M.M and El-Khoshiban, N.H. (2007). The influence of water stress on growth, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments, some metabolic and hormonal contents of two Triticium aestivum cultivars. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3: 2062-2074.

  2. Agarwal, S and R.Shaheen, (2007). Stimulation of antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation by abiotic stresses in leaves of Momordica charantia. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2: 149–161. 

  3. Ahmad, P.C., A. Jaleel, M.A. Salem, G. Nabi, S. Sharma, (2010). Roles of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in plants during abiotic stress. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 30: 161–175.

  4. Alamgir, A.N.M., Yousuf Ali, M. (1999). Effect of salinity on leaf pigments, sugar and protein concentrations and chloroplast ATPase activity of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 28: 145–149. 

  5. Bates, L.S., Walden, R. P., Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39: 205-208

  6. Bhaskar, G and Huang, B. (2014). Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization. International Journal of Genomics. 

  7. Bianchi, G., Gamba, A., Murellic, C., Salamini, F., Bartels, D. (1991). Novel carbohydrate metabolism in the resurrection Plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Plant J. 1: 355-59.

  8. Chang, B., Yang, L., Cong, W., Zu, Y., Tang, Z. (2014). The improved resistance to high salinity induced by trehalose is associated with ionic regulation and osmotic adjustment in Catharanthus roseus. Plant Physiol Biochem. 77:140-8. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.02.001. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

  9. Chang, T.T, Loresto, G.C. and Tagumpay, O. (1974). Screening rice germplasm for drought resistance. SABRAO.J. 6: 9-16.

  10. Chang, I.T, Loresto, G.C., O’Toole, J.C., Arrnenta-Soto, J.L. (1982). Strategies and methodology of breeding rice for drought prone areas. In: Drought resistance in crops with emphasis on Rice. Pp.217-244, IRRI, Philippines.

  11. Chen, G.X and Asada, K. (1989). Ascorbate peroxidase in tea leaves: Occurrence of two isozymes and the differences in their enzymatic and molecular properties. Plant and Cell Physiol. 30:987-998.

  12. De Carvalho, K., Petkowicz, C.L., Nagashima, G.T., Bespalhok Filho, J.C., Vieira, L.G., Pereira, L.F., Domingues, D.S. (2014). Homeologous genes involved in mannitol synthesis reveal unequal contributions in response to abiotic stress in Coffea arabica. Mol Genet Genomics. 289: 951-63. doi: 10.1007/s00438-014-0864-y. Epub 2014 May 27.

  13. Deivanai, S., Xavier, R., Vinod, V., Timalata, K., Lim, O.F. (2011). Role of exogenous proline in ameliorating salt stress at early stage in two rice cultivars. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, 7: 157–174.

  14. Dhindsa, R.S., Plumb-Dhindsa, P., Thorpe, T.S. (1981). Leaf senescence: Correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of SOD and catalase J.Exp.Bot 32: 93-101.

  15. Foyer, C., Halliwell, B. (1976). The presence of Glutathione and Glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: A proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism. Planta 133: 21-25.

  16. Foyer, C.H, Souriau, N., Perret, S., Lelandaiis, M., Kunert, K.J., Prurost, C., Jouanin, L. (1995). Over expression of glutathione reductase and not glutathione synthetase leads to increases in antioxidant capacity and resistance to photo inhibition in poplar trees. Plant Physiol.109: 1047-1057.

  17. Girousse, C., Bournoville, R., Bonnemain, J.L. (1996). Water deficit induced changes in concentration of proline and some other amino acids in the phloem sap of Alfalfa. Plant. Physiol 111: 109-113.

  18. Hochberg, U., Degu, A., Cramer, G.R., Rachmilevitch, S., Fait, A. (2015). Cultivar specific metabolic changes in grapevines berry skins in relation to deficit irrigation and hydraulic behavior. Plant Physiol Biochem. 88C:42-52. doi: 10.1016/    j.plaphy.2015.01.006. [Epub ahead of print]

  19. Hoagland, D.R and Arnon, D.I. (1950). The water culture method of growing plants without soil. Univ.of California, Berkelley Coll. Agric.Circ. 347.

  20. Hoque, M.A., Banu, M.N.A., Nakamura, Y., Shimoishi, Y. and Murata, Y. (2008). Proline and glycinebetaine enhance antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems and reduce NaCl-induced damage in cultured tobacco cells. Journal of Plant Physiology,165: 813–824.

  21. Hunt, R., (1990). Basic Growth Analysis: Plant growth analysis for beginners. Unwin Hyman, London.

  22. Hurd, E.A., (1974). Phenotype and drought tolerance in wheat. Agricultural Meteorol, 14: 39–55.

  23. Joseph, E.A., Radhakrishnan, V.V., Mohanan, K.V. (2015). A Study on the Accumulation of Proline- An Osmoprotectant Amino Acid under Salt Stress in Some Native Rice Cultivars of North Kerala, India. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research 3: 15-22.

  24. Joudi, M., Ahmadi, A., Mohamadi, V., Abbasi, A., Vergauwen, R., Mohammadi, H., Van den Ende, W., (2012). Comparison of fructan dynamics in two wheat cultivars with different capacities of accumulation and remobilization under drought stress. Physiol Plant. 144:1-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01517.x. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

  25. Kannan, P.R, Deepa, S., Kanth, S.V., Rengasamy, R. (2013). Growth, osmolyte concentration and antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. undersalinity stress. Appl Biochem Biotechnol.171:1925-32. doi: 10.1007/    s12010-013-0475-9. Epub 2013 Sep 7

  26. Kishor, P.B.K., Hong, Z., Miao, G.H., Ho, C.A. and Verma, D.P.S. (1995). Over expression of pyroline 5carboxylate synthase increases proline production and confers osmotolerance in transgenic plants. Plant. Physiol. 108: 1387-    1394.

  27. Matysik, J., Alia, A., Bhalu, B., Mohanty, P. (2002). Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Current Science, 82: 525–532

  28. McKersie, B.D., Bowley, S.R., Harjato, E., Leprince, (1996). Water deficit tolerance and field performance of transgenic Alfalfa overexpresing SOD. Plant. Physiol. 111: 1177-1181. 

  29. Moore, S. and Stein, W.H.O. (1948). In: Methods in Enzymology (Eds. Colowick,SP and Kaplan,ND) Academic Press New York 3. pp: 468.

  30. Morris, D.S., (1948). Quantitative determination of carbohydrate with Dreywood’s anthrone reageant. Science 107: 254-255.

  31. Nash, D., Paleg, L.G., Wiskich, J.T. (1982). Effect of proline, betaine and some other solutes on the heat stability of mitochondrial enzymes. Aus.J.Pl. Physiol. 9: 47-57. 

  32. Nawaz, F., Ahmad, R., Ashraf, M.Y., Waraich, E.A., Khan, S.Z. (2015). Effect of selenium foliar spray on physiological and biochemical processes and chemical constituents of wheat under drought stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 113:191-200.doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.003. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

  33. Nounjan, N., Nghia, P.T., Theerakulpisut, P. (2012). Exogenous proline and trehalose promote recovery of rice seedlings from salt-stress and differentially modulate antioxidant enzymes and expression of related genes. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169: 596–604.

  34. Neumann, P. M., (1995). The role of cell wall adjustment in plant resistance to water deficits. Crop Sci. 35: 1258-1266.

  35. Perez-Alfocea, F., Estan, M.T., Caro, M. and Guerrier, G. (1993). Osmotic adjustment in Lycopersicon esculentum and 1. pennelli under Nacl and polyetylene glycol 6000 iso-osmotic stress. Physiol. Plant. 87: 493-498.

  36. Rawia Eid, Taha, L.S., Ibrahiem, S.M.M. (2011). Alleviation of adverse effects of salinity on growth and chemical constituents of marigold plants by using glutathione and ascorbate. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7: 714–721.

  37. Sanchez, F.J., Maria, M., Andres, E.F., Tenorio, J.L., Ayerbe, L. (1998). Turgor maintenance, osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 pea cultivars in response to water stress. Field Crops Res. 59: 225-235.

  38. Saxena, S.C., Kaur, H., Verma, P. (2013). Osmoprotectants: potential for crop improvement under adverse conditions,” in Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress, pp. 197–232, Springer, New York, NY, USA.

  39. Tahar Boutraa , Abdellah, A., Abdulkhaliq, A., Al-Shoaibi, Ali Alhejeli, M. (2010). Effect of water stress on growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of some wheat cultivars (Triticum durum) grown in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Taibah University for Science.3: 39–48 doi:10.1016/S1658-3655(12)60019-3

  40. Tanaka, N., Kato, M., Tomioka, R., Kurata, R., Fukao, Y., Aoyama, T., Maeshima, M. (2014). Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses. J Exp Bot. 65: 1497-512. doi: 10.1093/    jxb/eru014. 

  41. Thangaraj, M., O’Toole, J.C., De Datta, S.K. (1990). Root response to water stress in rainfed lowland rice. Exp.Agric. 26: 287-296.

  42. Thitisaksakul, M., Tananuwong, K., Shoemaker, C.F., Chun, A., Tanadul, O.U., Labavitch , J.M., Beckles, D.M. (2015). Effects of timing and severity of salinity stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield, grain composition, and starch functionality. J Agric Food Chem. 4: 2296-304. doi:10.1021/jf503948p. 

  43. Tripathy, I.N., Zhang, J., Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, H.T. (2000). QTL’s for cell membrane stability mapped in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under drought stress. TAG 100: 1197-1202.

  44. Zhou, Y., Zhang, C., Lin, J., Yang, Y., Peng, Y., Tang, D., Zhao, X., Zhu, Y., Liu, X. (2014). Over-expression of a glutamate dehydrogenase gene, MgGDH, from Magnaporthe grisea confers tolerance to dehydration stress in transgenic rice. Planta 241:727-40. 


Editorial Board

View all (0)