Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.20

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 49 issue 5 (october 2015) : 407-713

Planting row arrangement and nutrient management in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) - garlic (Allium sativum) intercropping

Santosh Singh
1Government Degree College, Jakhini, Varanasi-221305, India.
Cite article:- Singh Santosh (2023). Planting row arrangement and nutrient management in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) - garlic (Allium sativum) intercropping. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 49(5): 407-713. doi: 10.18805/ijare.v49i5.5802.
Field experiments were carried out at Lucknow, India to evaluate the optimum plant row arrangement of geranium and to study the effects of different rates of fertilizer N, P and Zn for the yield assessment in a geranium-garlic intercropping system. A paired row arrangement (40/80 cm) of geranium planting significantly increased the herb and essential oil yield over the conventional single row planting method (60x30cm). The former gave 20.6 % more herbage than the geranium single row intercrop system, with a 22.3 % increase in oil yield. Application of N at 160 kg ha-1 significantly increased the herb and oil yields of geranium and bulb yield of garlic over the control and 80 kg N ha-1. Uptake of N by geranium was also significantly higher at 160 kg N ha-1.Application of phosphorus at 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 proved significantly better than the no P control in the production of geranium oil and garlic bulbs. Uptake of Zn increased significantly up to 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Higher rates of P decreased the Zn uptake by the plants. Application of 30 kg Zn SO4 ha-1 showed a significant response on the herb and oil yields over the no zinc control. The higher growth indices such as monetary equivalent ratio (1.45), area time equivalent ratio (1.44), land use efficiency (144 %) and benefit cost ratio (6.37) were recorded with a geranium paired intercrop system compared to other cropping systems. The geranium paired intercrop system proved advantageous in enhancing the economic returns by 1.73 – a two fold increase over the geranium single row, sole cropping system. It is concluded from this study that intercropping of garlic with a geranium paired row system proved highly beneficial in terms of getting higher economic returns by almost a factor of two over the conventional geranium single row planting method. A fertilizer addition of 160 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 30 kg Zn SO4 ha-1 is recommended for achieving the maximum yield advantages in a geranium-garlic intercropping system.
  1. Adetiloye, P.O. and Adekunle, A.A. (1989) Concept of monetary equivalent ratio and its usefulness in the evaluation of intercropping advantages. Tropical Agriculture, 66 : 337-341.
  2. Anonymous. (1996) Impact of chemicals and allied products, Chemical Weeklly, 11: 237-280.
  3. Fukai, S. and Trenbath, B.R. (1993) Process determining intercrop productivity and yield of component crops. Field crops Research, 34: 217-227.
  4. Hiebsch, C.K. and McCollum, R.E. (1987) Area x time equivalent ratio : A method for evaluating the productivity of intercrops. Agronomy J., 79 : 15-22.
  5. Jackson, M.L. (1967) Soil Chemical analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
  6. Mead, R. and Willey, R.W. 1980. The concept of land equivalent ratio and advantages in yield from intercropping. Experimental Agric. 16:217-218.
  7. Morris, R.A. and Garrity, D.P. (1993) Resource capture and utilization in intercropping : non-nitrogen nutrients. Field crops research, 34:319-334.
  8. Olsen, S.R., Cale, C.V., Watanable, F.S. and Dean, L.A. (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bi carbonate, USDA circular 939, Washington, 19.
  9. Prakasa Rao, E.V.S., Singh, Munnu and Rao, S. Ganesha. (1984) Intercropping studies in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.). J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge, 102: 499-500.
  10. Prakasa Rao, E.V.S., Singh, Munnu and Rao, S. Ganesha. (1988) Effect of plant spacing and nitrogen levels on herb and essential oil yields and nutrient uptake in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). International J. Trop Agric., 6 : 95-101.
  11. Qinghua, Z. (1993) China’s perfumery industry picks up. Perf. Flav., 18 : 47-48.
  12. Ram, M. and Kumar, S. (1998) Intercropping medicinal, spice and oil seed crops with geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) for improving productivity in the assured input systems of a subtropical environment. Journal of Medical and Aromatic Sciences, 20 1-7.
  13. Ram, M., Singh, R., Naqvi A.A. and Kumar, S. (1997) Effect of planting time on the yield and quality of essential oil in Pelargonium graveolens. J. Hort. Sci., 72 : 807-810.
  14. Ram, M., Gupta, M.M. Naqvi, A.A. and Kumar, S. (1995) Commercially viable annual crop of geranium in northern Indian plains. Journal of medicinal and Aromatic plants sciences, 17 : 17-20.
  15. Ram, M.; Ram, D. and Roy, S.K. (2003) Influence of an organic mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and herb and essential oil yields in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Bioresorce Technology, 87 : 273 - 278.
  16. Setty, B.S., Sulikeri, G.S. and Hulamani, N.C. (1989) Effect of N, P and K on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum). Karnataka J. Agric. Sciences, 2 : 160 - 164.
  17. Singh, M. and Shivraj, B. (1998) Intercropping studies in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). J. Agron Crop Sci., 180 : 23-26.
  18. Subbiah, B.V. and Asija, G.C. (1956) A rapid method for the estimation of nitrogen in soil. Current Science, 25 : 259 - 260.
  19. Takkar, P.N. Mann, M.S., Bansal, R.L., Randhawa, N.S. and Singh, H. (1976) Agron. J., 68 : 942-946.
  20. Willey, R.W. and Rao, M.R. (1980) A competitive ratio for quantifying competition between intercrops. Experimental Agric., 16 : 117 - 125.

Editorial Board

View all (0)