Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Properties of Atuna racemosa Raf. Kernel Extract

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-415    | Article Id: A-415 | Page : 733-736
Citation :- Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Properties of Atuna racemosa Raf. Kernel Extract.Indian Journal Of Agricultural Research.2019.(53):733-736
R.P. Gentallan Jr., N.C. Altoveros, T.H. Borromeo and C.G.A. Macabecha rpgentallan@up.edu.ph
Address : Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Food Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines.
Submitted Date : 22-01-2019
Accepted Date : 9-07-2019

Abstract

Atuna racemosa Raf., a forest tree used to season raw fish dish in the Philippines, is proven to have antibacterial properties. The study aimed to help elucidate the significance of using its kernel as a condiment and consequently, increase its value by assessing its antimicrobial and phytochemical properties. The antimicrobial activity of its ethanolic extracts were screened against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans using agar disc diffusion technique. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done, and total phenolic content was determined at a concentration of 100 mg dry sample per 1 mL solvent. The extract showed bacterial growth inhibition in Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus while a mild antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger was observed. Phytochemical analysis detected the presence of cardiac glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds and saponins in the extract. It yielded a total phenolic content of 42.7 mg GAE/100 g. This denotes that the kernel of A. racemosa has the potential to be classified as a natural food preservative and functional food.

Keywords

Atuna racemosa Antibacterial Antifungal Phenolic content Phytochemicals

References

  1. Ainsworth, E.A. and Gillespie, K.M. (2007). Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using FolinCiocalteu reagent. Nature Protocols. 2: 875-877.
  2. Andersson-Dunstan, C., Noreen, Y., Serrano, G., Cox, P.A., Perera, P. and Bohlin, L. (1997). Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosyntheseis and rat ear oedema assays. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 57: 35-56.
  3. Buenz, E.J. (2007). Mitochondrial involvement in Atuna racemosa induced toxicity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 109: 304-311.
  4. Buenz, E.J., Bauer, B.A., Johnson, H.E., Beekman, E.M., Frank, K.L. and Howe, C.L. (2006). Searching historical herbal texts for potential new drugs. British Medical Journal. 333: 1314–1315.
  5. Buenz, E.J., Tillner, J.E., Limburg, P. and Bauer, B.A. (2007). Antibacterial properties and toxicity of Atuna racemosa extract depend on kernel maturity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 111: 592-597.
  6. Chauhan, R., Lone, S.A. and Beigh, A. H. (2014). Pathogenecity of three species of aspergillus (A. fumigatus, A. niger & A. sydowii) on some fresh water fishes. Life Science Leaflets. 48: 65-72.
  7. Davidson, A. (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. OUP Oxford, UK, pp. 445–446. 
  8. Doménech-Sánchez, A., Laso, E., Pérez, M.J. and Berrocal C. (2011). Emetic disease caused by Bacillus cereus after consumption of tuna fish in a beach club. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 8: 835- 837.
  9. Edeoga, H.O., Okwu, D.E. and Mbaebie B.O. (2005). Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 4: 685-688.
  10. Eloff, J.N. (1998). Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants?. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 60: 1-8.
  11. Harborne, J.B. (1980). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall, London. 
  12. Leaño, E. M. (2001). Fungal diseases. Health management in aquaculture. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, pp. 43-53.
  13. Onwukaeme, D.N., Ikuegbvweha, T.B. and Asonye, C.C. (2007). Evaluation of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and effect of exudates of Pycanthus angolensis Weld. Warb. (Myristicaceae) on corneal ulcers in rabbits. Tropical Journal Pharmaceutical Research. 6: 725-730.
  14. Ozcan, T., Akpinar-Bayizit, A., Yilmaz-Ersan, L. and Delikanli, B. (2014). Phenolics in Human Health. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications. 5: 393-396
  15. Pacaña, J.M. and Galarpe, V.R.K.R. (2017a). Phytochemical screening and toxicity testing of Atuna racemosa Rafin. Chrysobalanaceae shell and seed extracts. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences. 4: 110-115.
  16. Pacaña, J.M. and Galarpe, V.R.K.R. (2017b). Antibacterial property of Atuna racemosa Rafin. Chrysobalanaceae shell and kernel extracts (Aqueous, Methanol, Ethyl Acetate, and Decoction). International Journal of Biosciences. 11: 443-448.
  17. Perez, R.M.G. (2001). Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from plants. The Scientific World. 1: 713-784.
  18. Prance G.T. (2004). The uses of Atuna racemosa Raf. (Chrysobalanaceae) in Samoa. Economic Botany. 58: 470-475.
  19. Premier, R. (2002). Phytochemical composition: A paradigm shift for food health considerations. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 11: 197-201.
  20. PROSEA. (2016). PlantUse: Atuna racemosa. https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Atuna (PROSEA).
  21. Santacroce, P.M., Conversano, M.C., Casalino, E., Lai, O., Zizzadoro, C., Centoducati, G. and Crescenzo, G. (2008). Aflatoxins in aquatic species: metabolism, toxicity and perspectives. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries. 18: 99–130.
  22. See, S.B.O. (2017). Sustainability, inaugural LTB Icon Awards highlight Madrid Fusion Manila. GMA News Online. http://www. gmanetwork.com/news/lifestyle/food/606170/sustainability-inaugural-ltb-icon-awards-highlight-madrid-fusion-manila/story/
  23. Smeriglio, A., Barreca, D., Bellocco, E. and Trombetta, D. (2017). Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins: occurrence, dietary intake and pharmacological effects. British Journal Pharmacology. 174: 1244–1262.
  24. U.S. Pharmacopoeia 30-National Formulary 25. (2007). <87> Biological reactivity Tests, In vitro.

Global Footprints