Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.60

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 49 issue 2 (april 2015) : 134-141

Spatial variability of topsoil chemical properties

Binny Gopal*, Amba Shetty, Jayaprakash, D.Y. Chaya
1Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, NITK, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar-575 025, Karnataka, India.
Cite article:- Gopal* Binny, Shetty Amba, Jayaprakash, Chaya D.Y. (2024). Spatial variability of topsoil chemical properties. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 49(2): 134-141. doi: 10.5958/0976-058X.2015.00019.0.
Soil properties vary spatially and temporally because of soil formation processes, land use pattern, fertilizations etc. Geo-statistics, remote sensing and GIS offer some of the best tools and techniques to capture the spatial variability of soil properties. Study area chosen for the investigation is situated in the coastal zone, covering a part of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts, Karnataka. Study area predominantly consists of sandy, loamy sand and gravelly elay soils. Harvested agricultural paddy fields were identified as soil sampling locations. A total of 260 soil samples were collected from top 0-20 cm of soil surface and were air dried. Measurement of topsoil chemical properties such as Organic Matter (OM), pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) were carried out as per Indian Standard Codes. Descriptive statistics were computed, correlation between the soil properties was explored and also soil properties were interpolated and mapped using IDW interpolation method. Soil properties have very large variability. In this region topography and vegetation is homogeneous, and no erosion activity is observed. So the only reason for the high variability of soil properties is agricultural practices. Correlation among soil properties is not consistent. There is no significant influence of soil type on soil properties range. Restoration of small scale farmers is important in food security point of view.
  1. Burrough, P. A. (1986). Principles of geographical information systems for land resources assessment. Journal of Quaternary Science 3(1):108.
  2. Chandra, R., Ganesan, N., Prusty, B. A. K. and Azeez, P. A. (2012). Soil Properties of a Tropical Savannah in the Eastern Ghats of India. Open Journal of Soil Science 2: 353-363.
  3. Chaudhari, P. R., Ahire, D. V. and Vidya D. Ahire. (2012). Correlation between Physico-chemical properties and available nutrients in sandy loam soils of Haridwar. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences 2: 1493-1500.
  4. Corwin, D.L. and Lesch, S.M. (2005). Characterizing soil spatial variability with apparent soil electrical conductivity Part II. Case study Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 46: 135–152.
  5. D.A.C. (2004). Methods Manual Soil Testing in India. Ministry of Agriculture Government of India New Delhi. pp 1-208.
  6. Goovaerts, P. (1999). Geostatistics in soil science: state-of-the-art and perspectives. Geoderma 89: 1–45.
  7. Grego, C.R., Vieira, S.R.and Lourencao, A.L. (2006). Spatial distribution of Pseudaletia sequax Franclemlont in triticale under no-till management. Sci. Agric. 63: 321–327.
  8. IS 5194:1969. Method for determination of nitrogen — Kjeldahl method.
  9. IS 6361:1971. Methods of colorimetric determination of phosphorus.
  10. IS 2720 (Part XXII): 1972. Methods of test for soils part xxii determination of organic matter. First Revision.
  11. IS 9497: 1980. Method for determination of sodium, potassium and calcium (flame photometric).
  12. IS 2720 (Part 26): 1987. Method of test for soils part 26 determination of pH value. Second Revision.
  13. IS 14767: 2000. Determination of the Specific Electrical Conductivity of Soils - Method of Test.
  14. IS 15556: 2005. Volumetric and spectrophotometric estimation of iron.
  15. Patil, S.S., Patil, V.C. and K.A. Al-Gaadi. (2011).Spatial variability in fertility status of Surface Soils. World Applied Sciences Journal 14: 1020-1024.
  16. Ravikumar, P. and Somashekar, R. K. (2013). Evaluation of nutrient index using organic carbon, available P and available K concentrations as a measure of soil fertility in Varahi River basin, India. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 3: 330-343.
  17. Sen, P., Majumdar, K. and Gavin Sulewski. (2007). Spatial variability in available nutrient Status in an Intensively Cultivated Village. Better Crops 91: 10-11.
  18. Tesfahunegn, G. B., Tamene, L., Paul, L.G. and Vlek. (2011). Catchment-scale spatial variability of soil properties and implications on site-specific soil management in northern Ethiopia. Soil & Tillage Research 117: 124–139.
  19. Zhao, B. C. H., Lia, X., Zhang, K., Rena, H. and Baia, H. (2010). Temporal and spatial distributions of soil nutrients in Hani terraced paddy fields, Southwestern China. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2: 1032–1042.

Editorial Board

View all (0)