DOI: 10.5958/j.0976-058X.48.2.017    | Article Id: A-3951 | Page : 97-104
Vibha Nehra*, Baljeet Singh Saharan and Madhu Choudhary1 vibhanehra_3@yahoo.com
Address : Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 118, India


Plant–bacterial interactions in the rhizosphere are complex and determine the plant health, productivity and soil fertility. The Plant Growth Promoting bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of the cotton plant from various places of Haryana, India. One of the most promising isolate exhibiting maximum PGP traits was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens based on the biochemical characterization, phenotypic microarray analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The isolate was initially screened on the basis of the seed germination assay and was then screened in vitro for their plant growth promoting traits like production of indoleacetic acid (IAA), ammonia production (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and acetylene reduction activity (ARA). The isolate exhibited positive results for ammonia and siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. The isolate also showed acetylene reduction activity (ARA). The results indicated that P. fluorescens has significant potential when applied to soil–plant system to uncover its efficacy as effective PGPR.


Cotton rhizosphere PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens Seed germination Yield enhancement.


  1. Abdul-Baki, A. and Anderson, J.D. (1973). Vigor determination in Soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: 630-633.
  2. Ahemad, M. and Khan, M.S. (2011). Functional aspects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Recent advancements. Ins. Microbiol., 1: 39-54.
  3. Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, I. and Khan, M.S. (2008). Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities. Microbiol. Res., 163(2): 173-181.
  4. Ahmed, N. and Shahab, S. (2011). Phosphate Solubilization: Their mechanism genetics and application. Internet J. Microbiol., 9(1).
  5. An, Y.; Kang, S.; Kim, K.D.; Hwang, B.K. and Jeun, Y. (2010). Enhanced defense responses of tomato plants against late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans by pre-inoculation with rhizobacteria. Crop Prot., 29: 1406-1412.
  6. Arif, K.; Archana, G. and Anjana, J.D. (2012). Engineering heterologous iron siderophore complex utilization in rhizobia: Effect on growth of peanut and pigeon pea plants. Appl. Soil Ecol., 53: 65–73.
  7. Baker, A.W. and Schippers, B. (1987). Microbial cyanide production in the rhizosphere in relation to potato yield reduction and Pseudomonas sp. mediated plant growth stimulation. Soil Biol. Biochem., 19: 451-457.
  8. Boopathi, E. and Rao, K.S. (1999). A siderophore from Pseudomonas putida type A1: structural and biological characterization. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein structure and molecular enzymology, 1435(1– 2): 30–40.
  9. Charles, T.C. and Nester, E.W. (1993). A chromosomally sensory transduction system is required for Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol., 175: 6614–6625.
  10. Dye, D.W. (1962). The inadequacy of the usual determinative tests for identification of Xanthomonas sp. New Zealand J. Sci., 5: 393–416.
  11. De-la-Pena, C.; Badri, D.V. and Loyola-Vargas, V.M. (2012). Plant root secretions and their interactions with neighbors. Signaling and Communication in Plants, 12: 1-26.
  12. Ganesan, V. (2008). Rhizoremediation of Cadmium soil using a Cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizopseudomonad. Curr. Microbiol., 56: 403–407.
  13. Glick, B.; Patten, C.; Holguin, G. and Penrose, D. (1999). Biochemical and genetic mechanisms used by plant growth promoting bacteria. Imperial College press, London.
  14. Gordon, A.S. and Weber, R.P. (1951). Colorimetric estimation of indole acetic acid. Plant Physiol., 26: 192–195.
  15. Han, J.; Sun, L.; Dong, X.; Cai, Z.; Sun, X.; Yang, H.; Wang, Y. and Song, W. (2005). Characterization of a novel plant growth-promoting bacteria strain Delftia tsuruhatensis HR4 both as diazotroph and a potential biocontrol agent against various plant pathogens. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 28: 66-76.
  16. Hayat, R.; Ali, S.; Amara, U.; Khalid, R. and Ahmed, I. (2010). Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Ann. Microbiol., 60: 579-98.
  17. Heidari, M. and Golpayegani, A. (2012). Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on antioxidant status and photosynthetic pigments in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci., 11(1): 57–61.
  18. Jacobson, B.C.; Pasternak, J.J. and Glick, B.R. (1994). Partial purification and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate deaminase from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR 12–2. Canadian J. Microbiol., 40: 1019–1025.
  19. Jenson, H. L. (1954).The Azotobacteriaceae. Bacteriol. Rev., 18: 195-214.
  20. Kamilova, F.; Validov, S.; Azarova, T.; Mulders, I. and Lugtenberg, B. (2005). Enrichment for enhanced competitive plant root tip colonizers selects for a new class of biocontrol bacteria. Environ. Microbiol., 7: 1809-1817.
  21. Kim, H.S.; Sang, M.K.; Myung, I.S.; Chun, S.C. and Kim, K.D. (2009). Characterization of Bacillus luciferensis strain KJ2C12 from pepper root, a biocontrol agent of Phytophthora blight of pepper. J. Plant Pathol., 25: 62-69.
  22. Kim, H.S.; Sang, M.K.; Jung, H.W.; Jeun, Y.C.; Myunge, I.S. and Kim, K.D. (2012). Identification and characterization of Chryseobacterium wanjuense strain KJ9C8 as a biocontrol agent of Phytophthora blight of pepper. Crop Prot. 32: 129-137.
  23. King, J.E. (1932). The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. Biochem. J., 26: 292.
  24. King, E.O.; Ward, M.K. and Raney, D.E. (1954). Two simple media for demonstration of pyocyanin and fluorescein. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 44: 301–307.
  25. Lamour, K.H. and Hausbeck, M.K. (2000). Mefenoxam insensitivity and the sexual stage of Phytophthora capsici in Michigan cucurbit fields. Phytopathol., 90: 396-400.
  26. Lowry, O.H.; Rosebrough, N.J.; Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with folin-phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265–275.
  27. Martinez-Viveros, O.; Jorquera, M.A.; Crowley, D.E.; Gajardo, G. and Mora, M.L. (2010). Mechanisms and practical considerations involved in plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 10(3): 293-319.
  28. Meyer, L.; MacDonald, S. and Kiawu, J. (2012). Cotton and Wool Outlook. A report from the economic research service. www.ers.usda.gov
  29. Mia, M.A.B.; Shamsuddin, Z.H., and Mahmood, M. (2012). Effects of rhizobia and plant growth promoting bacteria inoculation on germination and seedling vigor of lowland rice. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11: 3758-3765.
  30. Monthly Economic Letter. U. S. and Global Market Fundamentals. Cotton Incorporated. December 2012. www.cottoninc.com
  31. Nannipieri, P.; Ascher, J.; Ceccherini, M.T.; Landi, L.; Pietramellara, G. and Renella, G. (2003). Microbial diversity and soil functions. European J. Soil Sci., 54: 655-670.
  32. National Cotton Scenario: Growth of Indian Cotton. The Cotton Corporation of India Ltd. www.cotcrop.gov.in
  33. Park, M.; Kim, C.; Yang, J.; Lee, H.; Shin, W.; Kim, S. and Sa, T. (2005). Isolation and characterization of diazotrophic growth promoting bacteria from rhizosphere of agricultural crops of Korea. Microbiol. Res., 160(2): 127-133.
  34. Patel, D.K.; Murawala, P.; Archana, G. and Kumar, G.N. (2011). Repression of mineral phosphate solubilizing phenotype in the presence of weak organic acids in plant growth promoting fluorescent pseudomonads. Bioresource Technol., 102(3): 3055–3061.
  35. Pikovskaya, R.I. (1948). Mobilization of phosphorous in soil in connection with vital activity of some microbial species. Mikrobiologiya, 17: 362–370.
  36. Prasanna, R.; Joshi, M.; Rana, A.; Shivay, Y.S. and Nain, L. (2012). Inûuence of co-inoculation of bacteria-cyanobacteria on crop yield and C–N sequestration in soil under rice crop. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 28: 1223–1235.
  37. Rana, A.; Saharan, B.; Joshi, M.; Prasanna, R.; Kumar, K. and Nain, L. (2011). Identification of multi-trait PGPR isolates and evaluating their potential as inoculants for wheat. Ann. Microbiol., 61: 893–900.
  38. Rennie, R.J. (1981). A single medium for isolation of acetylene reducing (dinitrozen fixing) bacteria from soil. Canadian J. Microbiol., 27: 8–14.
  39. Samuel, S. and Muthukkaruppan, S.M. (2011). Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and fungi associated with rice, mangrove and effluent contaminated soil. Curr. Botany, 2(3): 22-25.
  40. Sang, M.K.; Kim, J.D.; Kim, B.S. and Kim, K.D. (2011). Root treatment with rhizobacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora blight affects anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field. Phytopathol., 101: 666-678.
  41. Saharan, B.S. and Nehra, V. (2011). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a critical review. Life Sci. Med. Res., 21: 1-30.
  42. Schwyn, B. and Neilands, J.B. (1987). Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophore. Anal. Biochem., 160: 47-56.
  43. Yasmin, S.; Bakar, M.A.R.; Malik, K.A. and Hafeez, F.Y. (2004). Isolation, characterization and beneficial effects of rice associated plant growth promoting bacteria from Zanzibar soils. J. Basic Microbiol., 44(3): 241– 252.
  44. Yu, X.; Liu, X.; Zhu, T.; Liu, G. and Mao, C. (2012). Co-inoculation with phosphate-solubilzing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria on solubilization of rock phosphate and their effect on growth promotion and nutrient uptake by walnut. European J. Soil Biol., 50: 112-117.

Global Footprints