Nitrate leaching losses reduction, N-use efficiency optimization in Triticum aestivum L. and Oryza sativa L. rotation to improve production and soil reclamation rate with gypsum in salt-affected soil  

DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-350    | Article Id: A-350 | Page : 604-611
Citation :- Nitrate leaching losses reduction, N-use efficiency optimization in Triticum aestivum L. and Oryza sativa L. rotation to improve production and soil reclamation rate with gypsum in salt-affected soil .Indian Journal of Agricultural Research.2018.(52):604-611
Muhammad Shoaib Rana, Ghulam Murtaza, Xue-cheng Sun, Muhammad Imran, Javaria Afzal, Ali Mohamed Elyamine, Marwa A. Farag, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Irfan Waris and Cheng-xiao Hu muhammadshoaib1555@gmail.com
Address : College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.
Submitted Date : 20-03-2018
Accepted Date : 14-09-2018


Nitrogen management is the major challenge due to narrow understanding of yield and N uptake relationship on salt-affected soils. To address this problem, a lysimeter experiment for rice and wheat was conducted on salt-affected soil with two lower (15 and 30 %) and three higher N rates (15, 30 and 45 %) with 50 and 100 % SGR. NO3- leaching was greater with higher N rates (up to 188 mg Leachate-1) in rice as compared to wheat. After the harvesting of rice and wheat, maximum decrease in soil pHs (7.75 %), ECe (41.50 %), SAR (63.64 %) was with N130 G100 which indicated that applied gypsum 100 % SGR with higher N rate ameliorated the soil more efficiently as compared to 50 % SGR. The highest yields recorded with N130 + 100 % SGR. The highest NUE (15.88 g/g) was with treatment G100 N130 in rice but in wheat (NUE, 44.76 g/g) G100 N70 proved to be the best. It was concluded that G100 N130 proved to be the best and reduced the environmental risks.


Nitrate leaching Nitrogen use efficiency Rice-wheat cropping system Salt-affected Soil amelioration.


  1. Akbari, K.N., Karan, F., Qureshi, E. M., Patel, V. N. (2003). Effect of micronutrients, sulphur and gypsum on soil fertility and yield of mustard in red loam soils of Mewar (Rajasthan). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 37 (2) : 94 – 99. 
  2. Bouyoucos, G.J. (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agron. J. 54:464-465.
  3. Galloway, J.N., Leach, A.M., Bleeker, A., Erisman, J.W. (2013). A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle. Philos. T. R. Soc .B. 368:120.
  4. Ghafoor, A., Murtaza, G., Rehman, M., Sabir, M. (2012). Reclamation and salt leaching efficiency for tile drained saline-sodic soil using marginal quality water for irrigating rice and wheat crops. Land Degrad. Dev. 23:1–9.
  5. Hadjidemetrious, D.G. (1982). Comparative study of the determination of nitrates in calcareous soils by the ion-selective electrode, chromotropic acid, and phenoodisulphonic acid method. Analyst. 107:25-29
  6. Howden, N.J.K., Burt, T.P., Worrall, F., Mathias, S.A., Whelan, M.J. (2013). Farming for water quality: balancing food security and nitrate pollution in UK river basins. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 103:397–407.
  7. Kumar, M., Pannu, R.K., Kumar, A., Singh, B., Dhaka, A.K. (2018). Impacts of irrigation frequency and nitrogen rate on productivity, quality, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiencies of late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Indian J. Agric. Res. 52 (2): 146-151
  8. Mandal, S., Samui, R.C. and Mandal, A. (2005). Growth, yield and yield attributes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars as influenced by gypsum application. Legume Research. 28 (2): 119 – 121.
  9. Murtaza, G., Ghafoor, A., Owens, G., Qadir, M., Kahlon, U.Z. (2009). Environmental and economic benefits of saline-sodic soil reclamation using low-quality water and soil amendments in conjunction with a rice-wheat cropping system. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 195:124–136.
  10. Qadir, M., Quillérou, E., Nangia, V., Murtaza, G., Singh, M., Thomas, R.J., Drechsel, P., Noble, A.D. (2014). Economics of salt-    induced land degradation and restoration. Nat. Resour. Forum, 38:282–295.
  11. Qadir, M. and Oste,r J.D. (2004). Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture. Sci. Total Environ. 323:1-19.
  12. Rashmi, B.L., Mina, K., Kuldeep, S.A., Kumar, A., Kala, S., Singh, R.K. (2018). Gypsum-an inexpensive, effective sulphur source with multitude impact on oilseed production and soil quality: A review.Agricultural Reviews,37 (2): 117-124.
  13. Riedell, W.E., Pikul, J.L., Jaradat, A.A., Schumacher, A.T.E. (2009). Crop rotation and nitrogen input effects on soil fertility, maize mineral nutrition, yield and seed composition. Agron. J. 101:870-879.
  14. Schoonover, W.R. (1952). Examination of Soils for Alkali. Extension Service University of California Berkley California Memeograph USA.
  15. Sims, J.R. and Jackson, G.D. (1971). Rapid analysis of soil nitrate with chromotropic acid. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 35:603-606.
  16. Singh, S., Malik, R.K., Dhankar, J.S., Garg, R., Sheoran, P., Yadav, A., and Kamboj, B.R. (2011). Survey of nitrogen use pattern in rice in the irrigated rice-wheat cropping system of Haryana. Indian J. Environ. Biol. 32:43-49.
  17. Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H., and Dickey, D.A. (1997). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. NY. USA.
  18. US Salinity Lab Staff. (1954). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. USDA Hand book 60 Washington DC USA.
  19. Yazdanpanah, N. (2016). CO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipal solid waste and plant residue. Solid Earth, 7:105-114. 

Global Footprints