Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorV. Geethalakshmi

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.60

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 49 issue 5 (october 2015) : 400-406

Antihyperglycemic activity of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: A Review

Kanjana Sirisidthi, Piya Kosai, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
1Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok-10400, Thailand.
Cite article:- Sirisidthi Kanjana, Kosai Piya, Jiraungkoorskul Wannee (2024). Antihyperglycemic activity of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: A Review. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 49(5): 400-406. doi: 10.18805/ijare.v49i5.5801.
Diabetes mellitus, one of the non-communicable diseases, is still the seriously problem due to leading the causes of death in the developed countries. Therefore it is important to identify novel nutraceuticals or drugs for curing or preventing diabetes because the existing synthetic drugs have several limitations. Traditional medicinal plants and medicinal mushrooms are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus more than century, but only a few of these have proofed their safe and efficacy. Aim of this review article is focused Ophiocordyceps sinensis one of the edible and medicinal mushrooms used for therapeutic effects and antioxidant activities. It contains several kinds of polysaccharides, proteins, nitrogen compounds, fatty acids, phenolic acids, and isoflavones. Many researches have evaluated that these phytochemical substances have the major impact on diabetes mellitus. This review focuses on the antihyperglycemic activity of this mushroom and clears that it has the potential to be considered as a candidate for preparing the new treatment of diabetes mellitus.
  1. Ashton, C.M., J. Septimus., N.J. Petersen., J. Souchek., T.J. Menke., T.C. Collins. and N.P. Wray. 2003. Healthcare use by veterans for diabetes mellitus in the veterans affairs medical care system. Am. J. Manag. Care 9: 145–150.
  2. Balon, T.W., A.P. Jasman. and J.S. Zhu. 2002. A fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis increases whole-body insulin sensitivity in rats. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 8: 315–323.
  3. Bok, J.W., L. Lermer., J. Chilton., H.G. Klingeman. and G.H.N. Towers. 1999. Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Phytochem. 51: 891-898.
  4. Chen, J., W. Zhang., T. Lu., J. Li., Y. Zheng. and L. Kong. 2006. Morphological and genetic characterization of a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis fungus and its polysaccharide component possessing antioxidant property in H22 tumor- bearing mice. Life Sci. 78: 2742–2748.
  5. Chen, S.D., S.Y. Lin., Y.S. Lai. and Y.H. Cheng. 2008. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis adlay fermentative products on antioxidant activities and macrophage functions. Taiwan J. Agric. Chem. Food Sci. 46: 223–233.
  6. Dong, C.H. and Y.J. Yao. 2007. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from natural and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Food Sci. Technol. 41: 669–677.
  7. El Ashry, F.E.Z., M.F. Mahmoud., N.N. El Maraghy. and A.F. Ahmed. 2012. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes. Food Chem. Toxicol. 50: 1159-1165.
  8. Gong, Z., M. Wang. and J. Zhang. 1990. Molecular structure and immuno-activity of the polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis. Shengwu Huaxue Zazhi. 6: 486–492.
  9. Guo, J.Y., C.C. Han. and Y.M. Liu. 2010. A contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and depression by Cordyceps sinensis, rich in vanadium. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 7: 387–389. 
  10. Guo, J., C. Li., J. Wang., Y. Liu. and J. Zhang. 2011. Vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis, a contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and depression in rats. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. Article ID 450316, 6 pages. 
  11. Holliday, J. and M. Cleaver. 2008. Medicinal value of the caterpillar fungi species of the genus Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes): a review. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 10: 219–234.
  12. Huang, Z.J., H. Ji., P. Li., L. Xie. and X.C. Zhao. 2002. Hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of polysaccharides from cultured mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. J. Chin. Pharm. Univ. 33: 51–54.
  13. Huang, L.F., F.Q. Guo., Y.Z. Liang. and B.M. Chen. 2004. Determination of adenosine and cordycepin in Cordyceps sinensis and C. militarris with HPLC-ESI-MS. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 29: 762–764.
  14. Hui, M.Y., B.S. Wang., C.H. Shiow. and P.D. Duh. 2006. Comparison of protective effects between cultured Cordyceps militaris and natural Cordyceps sinensis against oxidative damage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 3132–3138.
  15. Jia, J.M., H.H. Tao. and B.M. Feng. 2009. Cordyceamides A and B from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 57: 99-101.
  16. Jonsson, B. 2002. Revealing the cost of type II diabetes in Europe. Diabetologia 45: S5–S12.
  17. Kai, Z., G. Sheng., L. Yongjian., Z. Boya., L. Yu. and J. Zhe. 2014. Preventive effects of Cordyceps sinensis against contrast induced nephropathy in type 2 diabetics with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography. J. Am. College Cardiol. 64: C138.
  18. Kan, W.C., H.Y. Wang., C.C. Chien., S.L. Li., Y.C. Chen., L.H. Chang., et al. 2012. Effects of extract from solid-state fermented Cordyceps sinensison type 2 diabetes mellitus. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. Article ID 743107, 10 pages. 
  19. Kiho, T., J. Hui., A. Yamane. and S. Ukai. 1993. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 16: 1291–1293.
  20. Kiho, T., A. Yamane., J. Hui., S. Usui. and S. Ukai. 1996. Polysaccharide in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F30) from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on glucose metabolism in mouse liver. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 19: 294–296.
  21. Kiho, T., K. Ookubo., S. Usui., S. Ukai. and K. Hirano. 1999. Structural features and hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F10) from the cultured mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 22: 966–970.
  22. Koh, J.H., J.M. Kim., U.J. Chang. and H.J. Suh. 2003. Hypocholesterolemic effect of hot-water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 26: 84–87.
  23. Konrad, T., P. Vicini., K. Kusterer., A. Höflich., A. Assadkhani., H.J. Böhles., et al. 1999. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22: 280-287.
  24. Leung, P.H., S. Zhao., K.P. Ho. and J.Y. Wu. 2009. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides from mycelial culture of Cordyceps sinensis fungus Cs-HK1. Food Chem. 114: 1251–1256.
  25. Li, S.P., P. Li., T.T. Dong. and K.W. Tsim. 2001. Anti-oxidation activity of different types of natural Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomed. 8: 207–212.
  26. Li, S.P., Z.R. Su., T.T.X. Dong. and K.W.K. Tsim. 2002. The fruiting body and its caterpillar host of Cordyceps sinensis show close resemblance in main constituents and anti-oxidation activity. Phytomed. 9: 319-234.
  27. Li, S.H., K.J. Zhao., Z.N. Ji., Z.H. Song., T.T. Dong., C.K. Lo., J.K. Cheung., S.Q. Zhu. and K.W. Tsim. 2003. A polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury. Life Sci. 73: 2503–2513.
  28. Li, S.P., G.H. Zhang., Q. Zeng., Z.G. Huang., Y.T. Wang., T.T. Dong. and K.W. Tsim. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomed. 13: 428-433.
  29. Lisiecka, J., K. Sobieralski., M. Siwulski. and A. Jasinska. 2013. Almond mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (Wasser et al.) – properties and culture conditions. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus 12: 27-40.
  30. Liu, Y.K. and W. Shen. 2003. Inhibitive effect of Cordyceps sinensis on experimental hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism. World J. Gastroenterol. 9: 529–533.
  31. Liu, Y.T., J. Sun., Z.Y. Luo., S.Q. Rao., Y.J. SU., R.R. Xu. and Y.J. Yang. 2012. Chemical composition of five wild edible mushrooms collected from southwest China and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity. Food Chem. Tox. 50: 1238-1244.
  32. Lo, H.C., S.T. Tu., K.C. Lin. and S.C. Lin. 2004. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Life Sci. 74: 2897–2908.
  33. Lo, H.C., T.H. Hsu., S.T. Tu. and K.C. Lin. 2006. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am. J. Chin. Med. 34: 819–832.
  34. Luo, Y., S.K. Yang., X. Zhou., M. Wang., D. Tang. L. Sun. and L. Xiao. 2015. Use of Opiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) versus ACEI/ARB alone in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis. Ren. Fail. 37:614-634.
  35. Mamta Mehrotra, S., V. Amitabh Kirar., P. Vats., S.P. Nandi., P.S. Negi. and K. Misra. 2015. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 53: 36-43.
  36. Meena, H., K.P. Singh., P.S. Negi. and Z. Ahmed. 2013. Sub-acute toxicity of cultured mycelia of Himalayan entomogenous fungus Cordyceps sinesis (Berk.) Sacc. in rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 51: 381-387.
  37. Nakamura, K., Y. Yamaguchi., S. Kagota., Y.M. Kwon., K. Shinozuka. and M. Kunitomo. 1999. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngenic mice. Japan J. Pharmacol. 79: 335–341.
  38. Nasri, H., A. Baradaran., M.R. Ardalan., S. Mardani., A. Momeni. and M. Rafieian-Kopaei. 2013. Bright renoprotective properties of metformin: beyond blood glucose regulatory effects. Iran J. Kidney Dis. 7: 423-428.
  39. Nayak, Y., H. Venkatachalam., V.K. Daroji., G. Mathew., B.S. Jayashree. and M.K. Unnikrishnan. 2014. Antidiabetic activity of 3-hydroxyflavone analogues in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats. EXCLI J. 13: 1055-1074.
  40. Negi, C.S., M. Pant., P. Joshi. and S. Bohra. 2014. Yar tsa Gunbu [Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung et al.]: the issue of its sustainability. Curr. Sci. 107: 882-887.
  41. Panda, A.K. 2010. Tracing historical perspective of Cordyceps sinensis - an aphrodisiac in Sikkim Himalaya. Indian J. History Sci. 45: 189-198.
  42. Panda, A.K. and K.C. Swain. 2011. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim. J. Ayu. Integrat. Med. 2: 9–13.
  43. Pari, L., and N. Rajarajeswari. 2009. Efficacy of coumarin on hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in chemical induced type 2 diabetic rats. Chem. Biol. Int. 181: 292-296.
  44. Pegler, D.N., Y.J. Yao. and Y. Li. 1994. The Chinese ‘Caterpillar Fungus’. Mycol. 8: 3-5.
  45. Perera, P.K. and Y. Li. 2011. Mushrooms as a functional food mediator in preventing and ameliorating diabetes. Funct. Foods Health Dis. 4: 161-171.
  46. Qian, G.M., G.F. Pan. and J.Y. Guo. 2012. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of cordymin, a peptide purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis. Nat. Prod. Res. 26: 2358-2362.
  47. Rajeswari, P. and S. Krishnakumari. 2013. Potent antihyperglycaemic activity of Calocybe indica in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats antihyperglycemic activity of Calocybe indica. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5: 512-515.
  48. Saiqa, S., N.B. Haq. and A.H. Muhammad. 2008. Studies on chemical composition and nutritive evaluation of wild edible mushrooms. Iranian J. Chem. Chem. Engineer. 27:151-154.
  49. Seth, R., S. Zafar Haider. and M. Mohan. 2014. Pharmacology, phytochemistry and traditional uses of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc: A recent update for future prospects. Indian J. Trad. Knowledge 13: 551-556.
  50. Shi, B., Z. Wang., H. Jin., Y.W. Chen., Q. Wang. and Y. Qian. 2009. Immunoregulatory Cordyceps sinensis increases regulatory T cells to Th17 cell ratio and delays diabetes in NOD mice. Int. Immunopharmacol. 9: 582-586.
  51. Shrestha, B., W. Zhang., Y. Zhang. and X. Liu. 2010. What is the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ophiocordycipitaceae)? Mycol. Int. J. Fungal Biol. 1: 228-236.
  52. Shrestha, S., B. Shrestha., J.H. Park., D.Y. Lee., J.G. Cho. and N.I. Baek. 2012. Chemical constituents of Yarsagumba (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) (Berk.) Sung et al.), a valued traditional Himalayan medicine. Nepal J. Sci. Technol. 13: 43-58.
  53. Sun, J.E., Z.H. Ao., Z.M. Lu., H.Y. Xu., X.M. Zhang., W.F. Dou. and Z.H. Xu. 2008. Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of dry matter of culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on normal and alloxan-diabetes mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 118: 7-13.
  54. Sung, G.H., N.L. Hywel-Jones., J.M. Sung., J. Luangsa-aard., B. Shrestha. and J.W. Spatafora. 2007. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi. Studies in Mycol. 57: 5–59.
  55. Tuli, H.S., S.S. Sandhu. and A.K. Sharma. 2014. Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin. 3 Biotech 4: 1-12.
  56. Vaidya, J.G. and P.Y. Lamrood. 2000. Traditional medicinal mushrooms and fungi of India. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 2: 6 pages. 
  57. Vessal, M., M. Hemmati. and M. Vasei. 2003. Antidiabetic effects of quercetin in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 135C: 357-364.
  58. Wang, S.Y. and M.S. Shiao. 2000. Pharmacological functions of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis and related species. J. Food Drug Anal. 8: 248-257.
  59. Wang, N.N., Y.J. Wang. and X. Zhang. 2003. Effects of Cordyceps sinensison blood glucose, plasma insulin, histology of liver and kidney in rats. Chin. Pharm. J. 38: 924–926.
  60. Wang, J.C., S.H. Hu., J.T. Wang., K.S. Chen. and Y.C. Chia. 2005. Hypoglycemic effect of extract of Hericium erinaceus. J. Sci. Food Agricul. 85: 641-646.
  61. Wang, Y., M. Wang., Y. Ling., W. Fan., Y. Wang. and H. Yin. 2009. Structural determination and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis. Am. J. Chin. Med. 37: 977-989.
  62. Wang, X.L. and Y.J. Yao. 2011. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review. Zookeys 127: 43-59.
  63. Wang, J., Y.M. Liu., W. Cao., K.W. Yao., Z.Q. Liu. and J.U. Guo. 2012. Anti-inflammation and antioxidant effect of Cordymin, a peptide purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, in middle cerebral artery occlusion- induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Metabolic Brain Dis. 27: 159-165.
  64. Wang, J., C. Wu., Y. Chen., C. Chen., S. Hu. and S. Chang. 2014. Antihyperglycemic activity of exopolysaccharide produced by mushroom Pleurotus ferulae with submerged liquid culture on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Food Nut. Res. 2: 419-424. 
  65. Wani, B.A., R.H. Bodha. and A.H. Wani. 2010. Nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms. J. Med. Plants Res. 4: 2598-2604.
  66. Winkler, D. 2008. Present and historic relevance of Yartsa gunbu (Cordyceps sinensis) An ancient myco-medicinal in Tibet. Fungi 1: 6-7.
  67. Wu, Y., C. Sun. and Y. Pan. 2005. Structural analysis of a neutral (1 à 3), (1 à4)-b-D-glucan from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. J. Nat. Prod. 68: 812–814.
  68. Wu, Y., N. Hu., Y. Pan., L. Zhou. and X. Zhou. 2007. Isolation and characterization of a mannoglucan from edible Cordyceps sinesis mycelium. Carbohydrate Res. 342: 870-875.
  69. Xing, X.K. and S.X. Guo. 2008. The structure and histochemistry of sclerotia of Ophiocordyceps sinesis. Mycologia 100: 616-625.
  70. Yan, J.K., L. Li., Z.M. Wang., P.H. Leung., W.Q. Wang. and J.Y. Wu. 2009. Acidic degradation and enhanced antioxidant activities of exopolysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis mycelial culture. Food Chem. 117: 641–646.
  71. Yang, F.Q., K. Feng., J. Zhao. and S.P. Li. 2009. Analysis of sterols and fatty acids in natural and cultured Cordyceps by one-step derivatization followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 49: 1172-1178.
  72. Yang, M.L., P.C. Kuo., T.L. Hwang. and T.S. Wu. 2011. Anti-inflammatory principles from Cordyceps sinensis. J. Nat. Prod. 74: 1996-2000.
  73. Yu, S., Z. Zhang. and M. Fan. 2012. Analysis of volatile compounds of mycelia of Hirsutella sinenis, the anamorph of Ophiocordyceps sinesis. App. Mech. Mat. 140: 253-257.
  74. Zhang, S.S., D.S. Zhang., T.J. Zhu. and X.Y. Chen. 1991. A pharmacological analysis of the amino acid components of Cordyceps sinensis Sacc. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 26: 326-330.
  75. Zhang, X.Q., Y.P. Pu., L.H. Yin. and W.J. Zhong. 2003. Studies on the scavenging effect on superoxide anion free radical and hydroxyl free radical of Cordyceps sinensis. Chinese J. Gerontol. 23: 773–775.
  76. Zhang, W., J. Yang., J. Chen., Y. Hou. and X. Han. 2004. Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of exopolysaccharide fraction (EPSF) from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis fungus on tumor-bearing mice. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 42: 9–15.
  77. Zhang, G., Y. Huang., Y. Bian., J.H. Wong., T.B. Ng. and H. Wang. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Tricholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 72: 1152-1156.
  78. Zhang, H.W., Z.X. Lin., Y.S. Tung., T.H. Kwan., C.K. Mok, C. Leung. and L.S. Chan. 2014. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014; 12: CD008353.
  79. Zhong, S., H. Pan., L. Fan., G. Lv., Y. Wu., B. Parmeswaran., A. Pandey. and C.R. Soccol. 2009. Advances in research of polysaccharides in Cordyceps Species. Food Technol. Biotchnol. 47: 304-312.
  80. Zhou, X., P. Zhang., L. Barker., A. Albright., T.J. Thompson. and E. Gregg. 2014. The lifetime cost of diabetes and its implications or diabetes prevention. Diabetes Care 37: 2557-2564.
  81. Zhu, J.S., G.M. Halpern. and K. Jones. 1998a. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: Part I. J. Altern. Complem. Med. 4: 289-303.
  82. Zhu, J.S., G.M. Halpern. and K. Jones. 1998b. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: Part II. J. Altern. Complem. Med. 4: 429-457.
  83. Zou, J., X. Yu, S. Qu., X. Li., Y. Jin. and D. Sui. 2014. Protective effect of total flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 64: 231–237.

Editorial Board

View all (0)