Indian Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Chief EditorT. Mohapatra

  • Print ISSN 0367-8245

  • Online ISSN 0976-058X

  • NAAS Rating 5.20

  • SJR 0.293

Frequency :
Bi-monthly (February, April, June, August, October and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, volume 48 issue 5 (october 2014) : 331-341


Kamaljit Kaur Sangha
1School of Agricutlural, Computaitonal and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Health, Science and Engineering, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Queensland, Australia
Cite article:- Sangha Kaur Kamaljit (2023). MODERN AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR, PUNJAB, INDIA - A Review. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 48(5): 331-341. doi: 10.5958/0976-058X.2014.01312.2.
Agriculture is a backbone of economy in the Indian state of Punjab where Green revolution was introduced early in 1960s and has contributed largely to make India self-sufficient in food production. Although, Green Revolution has enhanced food production and consequently the economic returns in agriculture sector, but it has many backlash effects. This study analyses the modern agriculture systems that were introduced with Green Revolution largely at the expense of over-and misuse of land and water resources and loss of biodiversity. It evaluates the impact of changes in agricultural systems on the breakdown of socio-cultural fabric. Rural people, particularly agricultural communities, are facing many serious problems including farmer’s suicides, health problems such as cancer, loss of work culture among the youngsters,excessive use of alcohol and drugs and loss of cultural identity for people. Punjab, which used to be one of the progressive states in India, is suffering from the loss of natural, social and health capital. This study applies an integrated approach to assess the various costs and benefits of the current agricultural system in terms of well-being of people and of associated ecological and economic perspectives. It further suggests some innovative solutions for the current problems. A holistic approach applied in this study to assess Green Revolution from socio-cultural, economic and ecological perspectives provides an in depth view of the problems that people are facing in so called economically developed state of Punjab in India.
  1. Aulakh, M. S., Khera, T. S., Doran, J.W., Singh, K. and B. Singh, 2000. Yields and Nitrogen Dynamics in a rice-wheat system using green manure and inorganic fertilizer. Soil Sci. Society Am. J., 64: 1867-76. publications/sssaj/abstracts/64/5/1867
  2. Aulakh, M.S., T.S. Khera, J.W. Doran and K.F. Bronson, 2001. Denitrification, N20 and C02 fluxes in rice-wheat cropping system as affected by crop residues, fertilizer N and legume green manure. Biology a Fertility Soils, 34: 375-89.DOI: 10.1007/s003740100420
  3. Aulakh, M.S., A.K. Garg and B.S. Kabba, 2007. Phosphorus accumulation, leaching and residual effects on crop yields from long-term applications in the subtropics. Soil Use Manag.,23: 417- 427.DOI: 10.1111/j.1475- 2743.2007.00124.x
  4. Aulakh, M.S., M.S. Khurana and D. Singh, 2009. Water Pollution Related to Agricultural, Industrial and Urban Activities and its Effects on the Food Chain: Case Studies from Punjab. J. New Seeds, 10:112-137. DOI: 10.1080/ 15228860902929620
  5. Brar, K.K., 1996. Economic, Social and Political Aspects of the Ecological Implications of Green Revolution. In: Sustainable Development: Ecological and Social Dimensions,Gopal, I.K. (Ed.), Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, pp: 157-66.
  6. Brar, K.K., 1999. Green Revolution: Ecological Implications. 1st Edn., Dominant Publishers and Distributors, Delhi,ISBN- 10: 8187336145, pp: 146.
  7. Bhullar, A.S., R.S. Sidhuand M. Singh, 2006. Integrated land and water use: A case study of Punjab. Economic Political Weekly, 30: 5353-5357.
  8. Chand, R., 1999. Emerging crisis in punjab agriculture: severity and options for future. Economic Political Weekly, 34: A2-A10. &uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70 &uid=4&sid=21101599119747
  9. Government of Punjab, 1986. Expert committee report on diversification of Punjab agriculture (Chairman: S. S. Johl). Published by Government of Punjab, India.
  10. Government of Punjab, 2002. Expert committee report on agricultural production pattern adjustment programme in Punjab for productivity and growth (Chairman: S. S. Johl). Published by the Government of Punjab, India.
  11. Government of Punjab, 2009. Statistical abstracts of Punjab. government of Punjab, Chandigarh.
  12. Hira, G.S. and K.L. Khaira, 2000. Water resource management in Punjab under rice wheat production system. Research Bulletin, Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
  13. IFPRI, 2007. Withering Punjab Agriculture: Can it regain its Leadership? Published by the IFPRI, 2033 K Street, NW, Washington, D.C., USA.
  14. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC working group.Fifth assessment report.
  15. Jalota, R.K., K.K. Sangha and H.S. Kehal, 2005. Sustainable development: State of agriculture and natural resources in Punjab. In: Sustainable development in India: An interdisciplinary perspective,Arora, G.K. and A. Talwar (Eds.), Research and Publishing House, New Delhi, pp: 221-35.
  16. Jalota, S.K., S.S. Ray and S. Panigrahy, 2009. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on productivity of three main cropping systems in Punjab State of India- a simulation analysis. ISPRS Archives XXXVIII-8/W3 Workshop Proceedings: Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture, 8-W3/b2/11-B; pp.11-16.
  17. Kaur, R. and A.K. Sinha, 2011. Globalisation and health: A case study of Punjab. Human Geographies J. Studies Research Human Geography, 5.1: 35 42. Kumar, A., P. Sharma and S. K. Ambrammal, 2014.
  18. Climatic effects on food grain productivity in India. A crop wise analysis. Journal of Studies in dynamics and Change, 1(1): 38-48.
  19. MEA, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Health Synthesis. 1st Edn., World Health OrganizationPress, Geneva, ISBN-10: 9241563095, pp:53.
  20. Shergill, H., 2007. Wheat and paddy cultivation and the question of optimal cropping pattern for Punjab. J. Political Science, 12: 239-250.
  21. Sidhu, R.S. and M.S. Dhillion, 1997. Land and water resources in Punjab: Their degradation and technologies for sustainable use. Indian J. Agricultural Economics, 52: 508-518. ID=580469
  22. Sidhu, R.S. and S.S. Johl, 2002. Three decades of intensive agriculture in Punjab: Socio-economic and environmental consequences. In: Future of Punjab Agriculture,Johl, S.S. and S.S. Ray (Eds.), Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, Chandigarh, India.
  23. Sidhu R.S., Vatta, K. and H.S. Dhaliwal, 2010. Conservation agriculture in Punjab: Economic implications of technologies and practices. Indian J. Agric.Econ.,53: 1413- 27.
  24. Singh, J., 2011. Water table falls alarmingly in central Punjab.
  25. Singh, S., Park, J. and J. Litten-Brown, 2011. The economic sustainability of cropping systems in Indian Punjab: A farmers’ perspective.
  26. Singh, J. and R.S. Sidhu, 2006. Accounting for impact of environmental degradation in agriculture of Indian Punjab. Agric. Economics Res. Rev., 19: 37-48.
  27. SEP, 2005. A report on the State of Environment, Punjab.
  28. SEP, 2007. A report on the State of Environment, Punjab.
  29. SAP, 2007. Government of Punjab, Economic and Statistical Organisation report on Statistical Abstracts of Punjab.
  30. Tilman, D., K.G. Cassman, P.A. Matson, R.L. Nayor and S. Polasky, 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418: 671-77.PMID: 12167873
  31. The Tribune, 2010.A heavy price for cradling green revolution: Johl, 30 Jan, 2010 (accessed on 12th of April, 2012). Information related to 1/9/2006, 06/06/2007 and 03/04/2006 accessed using The Tribune website ( And the Times of India website ( for a report by S. S. Johl, 2010.
  32. Wood, S., K. Sebastian and Sara J. Scherr, 2000. Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems:Agroecosystems.1st Edn., World Resources Institute, Washington, ISBN-10: 1569734577, pp: 110.
  33. World Bank, 2003. Resuming Punjab’s Prosperity: The opportunities and Challenges ahead. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Editorial Board

View all (0)