Loading...

Effect of Row Spacing and Seed Rate on Ascochyta Blight Severity and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Tunisia

DOI: 10.18805/LR-627    | Article Id: LR-627 | Page : 1443-1448
Citation :- Effect of Row Spacing and Seed Rate on Ascochyta Blight Severity and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Tunisia.Legume Research.2021.(44):1443-1448
A. Ouji, S. Chekali, N. Chaieb, R. Hajri, M. Ben Younes ali_ouji@yahoo.fr
Address : Field Crop Laboratory, National Institute for Agricultural Research of Tunisia, Ariana, Carthage University, Tunisia.
Submitted Date : 29-04-2021
Accepted Date : 18-08-2021

Abstract

Background: In Tunisia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second major food legume. The development of chickpea production is facing several biotic constraints. Ascochyta blight (ABL) caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. is the most devastating disease and can cause complete yield losses under favorable conditions. In absence of chickpea variety totally resistance to ABL, some methods should be used to control and reduce this disease effects and help for its management. Therefore, this work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of row spacing and seed rate on ABL severity, growth and yield of chickpea. 
Methods: A split-plot design with three replicates was adopted to carry out this study during 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons. ‘Beja1’ chickpea variety was sown at 40 and 60 cm row spacing and at three seed rates (80, 110 and 140 kg ha-1). ABL severity was assessed visually on a 0-9 scale and agro morphological traits were measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Correlations between agronomic traits, row spacing, seed rate and ABL severity were investigated.
Result: Results showed that most of the variation in disease severity was associated with seed rate (r=0.61). The highest ABL score severity was noted at 140 kg ha-1 rate. Over both years, wide row spacing and low seed rate reduced ABL severity. Chickpea sown under narrow row spacing (40 cm) produced higher grain yield (1014 and 1099.7 kg ha-1 for 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons, respectively). Grain yield was tending to decrease with increasing sowing rates but at a density higher than optimal, grain yields decrease. In this study, ABL disease severity reached a score of 3.7 and 4.3 in 2018 and 2019, respectively. These disease severities levels had little effect on yield.

Keywords

Ascochyta blight Chickpea Cicer arietinum L Row spacing Seed rate Yield

References

  1. Ahmed,  S., Abang,  M.M. and  Maalouf, F. (2016). Integrated management of Ascochyta blight (Didymella fabae) on faba bean under Mediterranean conditions. Crop Protection. 81: 65-69.
  2. Armstrong-Cho C., Wolf T., Chongo, G ,  Gan, Y.,  Hogg, T.,  Lafond, G., Johnson, E., Banniza, S. (2008). The effect of carrier volume on ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) control in chickpea. Crop Protection. 27(6): 1020-1030
  3. Beec, D.F., Leach, G.J. (1989). Effect of plant density and row spacing on the yield of chickpea (cv. Tyson) grown on the Darling Downs, south-western Queensland. Aust. J. Expt. Agric. 29: 241-246. 
  4. Bhatta, L.R., Subedi, R., Joshi, P., Gurung, S.B. (2017). Effect of crop establishment methods and varieties on tillering habit, growth rate and yield of finger-millet. Agri. Res. and Tech. 11(5): 1-2.
  5. Bicer, B.T. (2014). Some agronomic studies in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik). Turkish J. of Agricultural and Natural Sciences. 1(1): 42-51. 
  6. Chang, K.F., Ahmed, H.U., Hwang, S.F., Gossen, B.D., Howard, R.J., Warkentin, T.D., Strelkov, S.E., Blade S.F. (2007). Impact of cultivar, row spacing and seeding rate on ascochyta blight severity and yield of chickpea. Can. J. Plant Sci. 87: 395-403.
  7. Chongo, G., Gossen, B.D., Buchwaldt, L., Adhikari, T. Rimmer, S.R. (2004). Genetic diversity of Ascochyta rabiei in Canada. Plant Dis. 88: 4-10. 
  8. FAOSTAT (2016). http://faostat.fao.org/faostat/.
  9. Gupta, R., Acharjee, S., Sarmah, B.K., (2020). Assessment of seed protein quality of a transgenic chickpea event expressing Cry2Aa protein. Legume Research. In press.
  10. Jukanti, A.K., Gaur, P.M. Gowda, C.L., Chibbar, R.N. (2012). Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): A Review. British Journal of Nutrition. 108: 11-26. 
  11. Kimurto, P.K., Towett, B.K., Mulwa, R.S., Njogu, N., Jeptanui, L.J., Rao, G.N., Silim, S., Kaloki, P., Korir, P., Macharia, J.K. (2013). Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) disease in the dry highlands of Kenya. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 52: 212-221.
  12. Kissi, W., Tamiru, M. (2016). Effect of sowing method and seed rate on the growth, yield and yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under highland conditions of Bale, Southeastern Ethiopia. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Management. 5(3): 86-94.
  13. Liaqat, S., Muhammad, Y., Syed, M., Ali, S., Muhammad, N., Ahmad, A., Asif, A., Jing, W., Muhammad, W.R., Shamsur, R., Weixun, W., Riaz, M.K., Adil, A., Aamir, R., Galal, B.A., Hongqi, S., Haiyang, J., Chuanxi, M. (2019). Improving lodging resistance: Using wheat and rice as classical examples. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20(17): 2-39.
  14. Lopez-Bellido, F.J., Lopez-Bellido, L., Lopez-Bellido R.J. (2005). Competition, growth and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Eur. J. Agron. 23: 359-378.
  15. Maddonni, G.A., María, O. E,  Cirilo, A.G. (2001). Plant population density, row spacing and hybrid effects on maize canopy architecture and light attenuation. Field Crops Research. 71(3): 183-193.
  16. Malek, M.A., Shafiquzzaman, M., Rahman, M.S., Ismail, M.R., Mondal, M.M.A. (2012). Standardization of soybean row spacing based on morpho physiological characters. Legume Research. 35: 138-143.
  17. Malik, B.P.S., Singh, R.C. (1996). The influence of seeding rate and weed control in small seeded lentils (Lens culinaris). Weed Sci. 45 (2): 296-300.
  18. McGrath, M.T. (2004). What are Fungicides? The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0825-01. 
  19. Mengesha, W., Tesfaye, A. (2015). Effect of spacing in incidence and severity of garlic rust [Puccinia allii (Rudolphi.)] and bulb yield and related traits of garlic at eastern Ethiopia. J. Plant Pathol. Microbiol. 6: 314. 
  20. Pande, S., Siddique, K.H.M., Kishore, G.K., Baaya, B., Gaur, P.M., Gowda, C.L.L., Bretag, T.W., Crouch, J.H. (2005). Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): A review of biology, pathogen city and disease management. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 56: 317-332. 
  21. Ramroodi, M., Galavi, M., Nakhzari, M.A. (2008). Evaluation of yield and yield components of some lentil genotypes at different sowing dates. Res. J. Agric. 8(2): 45-56.
  22. Regan, K.L., Siddique, K.H.M., Martin, LD. (2003). Response of kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to sowing rate in Mediterranean-type environments of south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43: 87-97.
  23. Saleem, A., Muhammad, A.Z., Habib, I.J., Ansar, M., Asghar, A., Rashid, S., Noor S. (2012). Effect of seeding rate on lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) seed yield under rainfed conditions. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. 25(3): 181-185.
  24. Ugwuoke, C.U., Asogwa, A.A., Okwo, C.R., Onu, F.M., Eze, G.E. and Onah, F.C. (2021). Effects of planting distance and seed rate on the growth and yield of Egusi Melon (Citrullus colocynthis). Legume Research. 44: 328-333.

Global Footprints