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Full Research Article
Role of Cluster Demonstration in Enhancement of Soybean Production in Ratlam District of Madhya Pradesh
First Online 24-07-2023|
Background: Soybean (Glysin max L.) is one of the most important oil seed cum pulse crop cultivated in Ratlam district of Madhya Pradesh. The present investigation was carried out at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ratlam during kharif 2021-22 and 2022-23, to demonstrate the improved variety JS-2029 and RVS 2001-4 with the scientific package and practices to improve the production of soybean.
Methods: The present research of Cluster Front Line Demonstrations (CFLDs) was conduct during kharif season 2021-22 and 2022-23 by KVK Ratlam, under rained condition. An extensive survey was conducted to collect in sequence from preferred farmers to give them enhanced package of put into practice. Privileged position performance was utilized to categorize the constraint faced by the farmers in soybean crop growing. Based on the evils face by the farmers, the cluster frontline demonstrations were designed.
Result: In conclusion, potential yield of variety can be achieved by imparting scientific knowledge to the farmers, providing need based quality inputs in due time and proper and timely application of inputs. The average yield of demonstrated technology (18.95 q/ha) was higher than of local check (15.87 q/ha).
Soybean is known as ‘submissive meat’, ‘wonder crop’, ‘phenomenon crop’ and ‘golden bean’ because of its rich and cheap source of quality protein (40- 42%) and oil content (18- 20%) having about 85% unsaturated adipose acids including 55% polyunsaturated adipose acids (PUFA) and about 0.3% is flavones (Smith and Huyser, 1987). Fat-free soybean meal is a primary and low-cost source of protein for animal feeds and most prepackaged meals (Nira et al., 2020). It is an adaptable crop with innumerable possibilities of improving agriculture production and supporting industry. Its protein is rich in Lysine (4-6%). India has large portion of the population are vegetarians and is in short supply of proteins.
The problem is compounded by the fact that majority of the farmers in the rainfed regions were unaware of new and high yielding varieties and improved package of practices for cultivation. The productivity of crops per unit area could be increased by adopting better practices in an orderly manner along through high yielding varieties (Ranawat et al., 2011; Rai et al., 2016). The constraints face by the farmers in obtaining higher output is standard and the front demonstrations are considered to overcome the evils in a systematic way in arrange to show the significance of the new evolve variety and improved package of practice for attractive the soybean output (Saravanakumar, 2018). Shaktawat et al., (2016) reported that the insignificant, diminutive and huge farmers belonged to low implementation group for seed treatment by fungicides and appliance of fertilizers, medium implementation for application of herbicide and plant safety measures of soybean production technology. The reason may be that the most of the technology have not yet reached to the farmer’s fields. Hence an efficient production technology transfer system is required in the field. Out of these conducts of demonstration on farmer fields have proved effective for creating awareness and acceptance of improved and advance technologies. Usually farmers of Ratlam district grow up confined variety of soybean during June-July and return in October-November with 100-110 days period but the production and yield is very less. In this regard, to increase the productivity, the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare had sanctioned the project “Cluster Frontline Demonstrations on oilseed’’ to ICAR-ATARI, Jabalpur through National Mission Oilseeds and Oil palm. To implement the project the Zone IX had selected KVK Ratlam for soybean cultivation with an objective to boost the production and productivity of Soybean crop through CFLDs with latest and specific technologies. To study the performance of short duration HYV of Soybean with 95-100 days duration (Variety: JS 2029 and RVS 2001-4) under proper management practices well as seed treatment and incorporated pest management was the major goal.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Technology gap (q/ha) = PY (q/ha) - DY (q/ha)
DY= Demonstration yield.
LY= Local check yield.
PY= Potential yield of variety.
The expertise was confirmed at Ratlam district of Madhya Pradesh. District has a tropical wet and dry summer season climate. The district’s yearly temperature is 28.68°C (83.62°F) and it is 2.71% elevated than India’s averages. Ratlam classically receive about 121.39 millimeters (4.78 inches) of rainfall and has 97.18 rainy days (26.62% of the time) per annum. For this lessons total 75 farmers (25 farmers in 2021-22 and 50 farmers in 2022-23) were preferred in 30.36 ha area under 04 clusters. The farmers were trained to follow the put together and practice for systematic cultivation of soybean through on and off campus training, method revelation, by distribute leaflets, grouping and kisan gosthi, farmers scientist communications and all the need based input provided to the farmers (Table 1).
The seeds were treated with Rhizobium @ 2 g/kg seed by thorough mixing with its slurry and kept in shade for 5-6 hours before sowing. Seeds were sown in line at the spacing 30 × 15 cm with seed rate 75 kg/ha. The required fertilizer was applied @20:60:40:30 kg N: P2O5:K2O:S per ha respectively. The traditional cultivation of soybean with their own varieties is considered as local check or farmers’ practice. To lessons the impact of cluster frontline demonstrations, data from CFLD and farmers practice were analyze.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Regarding yield, result concluded that highest yield average (18.94 q/ha) was recorded in demonstration plots than farmers’ practice (15.87 q/ha) with 19.33% higher yield over the farmer practice (Table 3). This fluctuation in yield might be due to early withdrawal of monsoon so the farmers have been benefitted by the early maturity of demonstrated soybean variety as compared to local variety. This finding is in agreement with those of Kumar et al., (2012). Superior growth parameter like more primary branches and pods per plant was the reason for higher yield which was due to combined effect of seed treatments, application of fertilizer, timely intercultural operations and integrated pest diseases management practices in CFLD plots. Similar findings were also reported by Rai et al., (2016) and Kalita et al., (2019).
The extension gap in the demonstrated yield over the farmers yield was 3.07. This indicate to organize various extension activity i.e. demonstration, training, meeting etc. for encourage the farming community to adopt the scientific package of practice. This helps to regress the trend of wide extension gap. More and more use of high yielding varieties with latest production technology will subsequently change this alarming trend of race extension gap (Dhakad et al., 2018). The technology gap in the demonstrated yield over the potential yield was 6.03. The technology gap may be attributed to the dissimilarity in the soil fertility status, agricultural practices and local climatic condition (Mukharjee, 2003).The technology index shows the feasibility of demonstrated technology at farmer’s field. The observed technology index of the study was 24.14%. The lower the value of technology index shows the more feasibility of the technology (Jeengar et al., 2006). This will accelerate the adoption of demonstrated technical intervention to increase the yield performance. The findings of the present study were in line with the findings of Saravanakumar (2018).
Economic analysis (Table 4) revealed that adoption of improved package of practices required an additional cost of Rs 819 per ha over farmers practice. This additional cost led to increased average gross return (79,153 Rs./ha) and net return (54,693 Rs./ha) was found superior in CFLD plots to farmer’s practice. The benefit cost ratios of under recommended practices were higher 2.23:1 than farmer’s practice 1.77:1. This may be due to higher yields obtained under recommended practices compared to farmer’s practices. Similar results have earlier been reported on soybean (Sharma et al., 2013). The result of front line demonstrations on the package of practices suggested that by its adoption, the farmers can realize higher yields and net profit in soybean cultivation. The result also indicates that the CFLD has given a good impact over the farming community of district as they were motivated by the improved agricultural technologies applied in the demonstration plots. Hence, improved production technologies in soybean have the broader scope for increasing the productivity per unit area. These results confirmed the findings of Khedkar et al., (2017).
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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