Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu
Print ISSN 0250-5371
Online ISSN 0976-0571
NAAS Rating 6.67
Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)
Full Research Article
Effect of Moisture Stress on Dry Matter Production, Dry Matter Partitioning and yield in Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) Genotypes
- Email firstname.lastname@example.org
Methods: An experiment was laid in a split plot design taking two conditions, control (T1) and moisture stress (T2) as main treatments and 7 genotypes of groundnut as sub treatments. Several morpho-physiological traits like dry matter production, dry matter partitioning, photosynthetic traits, relative water content, were measured after 10 days of stress imposition. Yield and yield attributes were also recorded at harvest along with drought tolerance index and principal component analysis.
Result: Results showed significant differences among the genotypes at moisture stress and control conditions. Significant decrease was observed in chlorophyll content, total dry matter production, dry matter partitioning efficiency, relative water content, photosynthetic traits, except specific leaf area among all the genotypes. TCGS-1694 have been identified as moisture stress-tolerant genotypes in principal component analysis with higher efficiency interms of total dry matter production, photosynthetic rate, dry matter partitioning to pods, stress tolerance index, yield and yield attributes while Kadiri-6 has been identified as susceptible genotype.
Groundnut being relatively indeterminate in growth habit is particularly sensitive to drought stress during the vegetative and reproductive stages, i.e., peg formation and pod filling (Mateva, 2022). Drought has an adverse effect on groundnut growth, physiology, pod filling, number of pods, and pod yield. The partitioning of photosynthates into developing pods has been found to be the most significant physiological characteristic in yield determination, aside from the number of pods and the duration of the pod filling phase in groundnut, where vegetative and reproductive sinks work concurrently (Haro et al., 2022). The difference in the ability of genotypes to produce pods under drought conditions is ascribed to partitioning differences between genotypes. There are two distinct mechanisms for drought recovery, including the capacity to produce pods during drought stress conditions and the ability to recover from drought with greater pod yield (Wang et al., 2022). Therefore, it is necessary for promising genotypes to be tested for higher partitioning efficiency to pods and yield under both normal and drought stress. Studies carried out on groundnut genotypes showed that there exists genotypic variation in the degree of drought tolerance among different varieties (Abady et al., 2021, Sowmya and Nadaf, 2022). Therefore screening of groundnut genotypes drought tolerance is the research priority.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Measurement of physiological parameters like SPAD Chlorophyll meter Reading (SCMR) using Minolta SPAD 502 m (Tokyo, Japan) was measured for the third fully expanded leaf from the top of the main stem. Total dry matter was measured at harvest. Then specific leaf area (SLA) was calculated using the formula
Relative water content (RWC) was recorded as described by Barrs and Weatherly (1962) using the formula
FW= Fresh weight.
DW= Dry weight.
TW= Turgid weight.
Dry matter partitioning was calculated by using of dry weights and following formula (Choyal et al., 2022).
Measurement of photosynthetic gas exchange parameters was done portable photosynthesis system i.e., InfraRed Gas Analyser (IRGA) (Model: Li-COR 3100).The automatic portable photosynthesis system recorded PAR, transpiration rate (E), net photosynthetic rate (PN) (µ mol CO2 m-2 sec-1), stomatal conductance (gs) (mole H‚ O m²/sec), Transpiration rate (E) (m. mole H‚ O m²/sec) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) (µmole CO‚ mole-¹) (Uni et al., 2021).
At the harvest of plants yield and yield attributes like hundred kernel weight (g), pod yield (Kg ha-1), kernel yield (Kg ha-1), shelling (%) and harvest index were recorded.
The two years data was collected, pooled and was statistically analyzed following the analysis of variance (design split plot). Statistical significance was tested with an F test at the 5% level of probability and compared to the treatment means with critical difference. The multiple comparisons of mean values of different parameters in all cultivars performed by SPSS software. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot was formulated using fviz_pca functions of the R statistical software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Moisture stress has a major impact on plant physiological traits, which in turn reduces crop yields and total dry matter output (Hura et al., 2022). In the present study, moisture stress significantly inhibited the plant growth, in all groundnut genotypes significantly.
Under moisture stress condition, the SCMR was significantly higher in Kadiri-9 (47.00) and least by Kadiri-6 (30.22) (Fig 1A). The total dry matter production under moisture stress condition was significantly higher in TCGS-1694 (40.32 g/plant) and the genotype Kadiri-6 (28.26 g/plant) recorded lowest (Fig 1B). Moisture stress has been linked to a decrease in leaf chlorophyll due to the breakdown of pigments and there by reduction of photosynthates and dry matter production (Trifunovi et al., 2021). Similar inhibitions of growth and development induced by drought stress have been reported for barley (Istanbuli et al., 2021), tobacco (Xu et al., 2022), Wheat (Farid et al., 2021), millet (Kalagare et al., 2021) etc.,
A crucial functional characteristic and indicators for calculating plant responses to environmental change is specific leaf area (SLA) and Relative water content (RWC) (Chaimala et al., 2021). SLA and RWC reported a sharp decline in genotypes under moisture stress conditions over control conditions. Plants generally reduce SLA in response to moisture stress (Andivia et al., 2021). Under moisture stress conditions, genotype Kadiri-9 (62.50%) recorded significantly higher RWC and least by Kadiri-6 (40.56%) (Fig 1C). Genotype, TCGS-1694 (253.00) showed the highest SLA value and lowest in Kadiri-6 (188.60), (Fig 1D). Recent findings were also similar to results of the present study, where a drought-tolerant genotype had higher RWC than the susceptible genotypes (Khar et al., 2022).
Photosynthesis and drought stress relationship is exceedingly complex. Photosynthetic attributes decreased significantly in moisture stress imposed plants. The photosynthetic attributes (Pn, gs, Ci and E) (Fig 2) were significantly higher in the genotype TCGS-1694 and the genotype Kadiri-6 recorded lowest. Under moisture stress, TCGS-1694 showed the highest Pn (24.56 µ mol CO2 m-2 sec-1), gs (0.40 mole H2‚ O m²/sec), Ci (198.54 µmole CO2‚ mole-1) and E (4.42 m. mole H2‚ O m²/sec ) values, in contrast to Kadiri-6 (15.50 µ mol CO2 m-2 sec-1, 0.09 mole H2‚ O m²/sec, 125.63 µmole CO2‚ mole-1, 1.22 m. mole H2‚ O m²/sec respectively), in which the minimum were recorded. This effect has also been reported for drought stressed cotton (EL Sabagh et al., 2020), green gram (Amarapalli, 2022) and sugarcane (Misra et al., 2020).
Dry matter partitioning efficiency
Alongside of photosynthetic attributes, dry matter partitioning is the more important trait for the yield differences among the groundnut genotypes under control and moisture stress conditions. In the present study, mean data of 2 years regarding dry matter partitioning in the leaves, stem, roots and pods at 60, 80 days after sowing (DAS) and harvest for control and moistures stress conditions are depicted in Fig 3,4.
Under moisture stress conditions, at 60 DAS (Fig 4A) dry matter partitioning to leaves was significantly higher in the genotype, TCGS-1694 (60.69%). Groundnut genotype, TCGS-1694 with higher partitioning efficiency to leaf at 60 DAS representing more photosynthetic efficiency of the genotype. However, at 80 DAS (Fig 4B) and harvest (Fig 4C) dry matter partitioning to leaves was significantly higher in TCGS-2018 (39.81%). Genotype with higher partitioning from leaf to reproductive sinks coupled with better sink capacity is more important at 80 DAS under moisture stress conditions.
Both at 60 DAS and 80 DAS (Fig 4A,B) dry matter partitioning to stem was significantly higher in the Kadiri-6 (50% and 34.63%). Increased partitioning to stems result in lanky growth and lodging of plants. Both under control and stress conditions their no significant difference dry matter partitioing in roots at 60 DAS and 80 DAS respectively.
At 80 DAS and harvest (Fig 4 B and C) dry matter partitioning to pods was significantly higher in TCGS-1694 (54.97%). TCGS-1694 with higher Pn, total dry matter, dry partitioning to leaf resulted in higher dry matter partitioning to pods at grain filling phase. In plants, the reproductive sinks compete for dry matter with the vegetative organs thereby decreasing dry matter allocation to vegetative phase during seed development (Zhang et al., 2022). However, this phenomenon may be supplanted by translocation of stored assimilates produced prior to pod/kernel production in groundnut. On the same line, the Kadiri-6 with higher partition efficiency was observed to stem rather than sink. Such differential behaviour in total dry matter partitioning and its distribution among groundnut genotypes could also ascribe to genotypes’ genetic characteristics (Salazar Licea, 2022).
Yield and yield parameters
Dry matter partitioning to pods may be a major cause of yield differences for groundnut genotypes. Under moisture stress conditions, TCGS-1694 recorded significantly higher pod yield (1316.70 kg/ha), harvest index (34.06), shelling percentage (62.99%), kernel yield (2674.95 kg/ha) and 100 kernel weight (34.57 g) contrast to Kadiri-6 in which the lowest values (503.30 kg/ha, 20.66, 38.01%, 1324.10 kg/ha, 19.60 g respectively) were recorded (Table 1and2). Poorer dry matter partitioning observed in genotype Kadiri-6 may have contributed to its low yield despite the huge biomass partitioned to stem produced. Crop yield is increased by dry matter partitioned into sink (kernels). Genotype TCGS-1694 had significantly higher biomass coupled with higher partitioning efficiency to kernels in addition to high photosynthetic and harvest indices.
Variability of stress tolerance index (STI)
In the experiment, 7 genotypes of groundnut were subjected to evaluation at reproductive phase to moisture stress conditions (Table 2). Genotype TCGS-1694 recorded significantly higher stress tolerance index (63.71) and Kadiri-6 recorded lowest stress tolerance index (46.56). A high value of STI implies higher tolerance to stress. According to Kamrani et al., (2018) selection based on STI helps to determine high yielding genotypes.
Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot
The distribution of genotypes and traits in the PCA biplot explained the high variability of traits for principal components. PCA biplot for photosynthetic and yield traits depicted the 86.4% (control conditions) (Fig 5) and 88.3% (stress conditions) (Fig 6) of variability in the raw data (Fig 1). In PCA of all 7 genotypes, TCGS-1694 and TCGS-1792 genotypes had a significantly higher response for photosynthetic traits, specific leaf area and yield traits, while TCGS-1784, TCGS-1862, Kadiri-9 genotypes had a higher response for relative water content, total dry matter, SCMR, harvest index and shelling percentage in both control and stress conditions. However, under control conditions TCGS-1862 had higher response for photosynthetic traits and pod yield. Genotypes TCGS-1694 and TCGS-1792 have been identified as drought-tolerant genotypes, while Kadiri-6 has been identified as susceptible genotype.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
- Abady, S., Shimelis, H., Janila, P., Yaduru, S., Shayanowako, A.I., Deshmukh, D., Manohar, S.S. (2021). Assessment of the genetic diversity and population structure of groundnut germplasm collections using phenotypic traits and SNP markers: Implications for drought tolerance breeding. PloS one. 16(11): e0259883.
- Amarapalli, G. (2022). Studies on the effect of moisture stress on root traits in green gram cultivars. Legume Research- An International Journal. 1: 6.
- Andivia, E., Villar Salvador, P., Oliet, J.A., Puértolas, J., Dumroese, R.K., Ivetiæ, V., Ovalle, J.F. (2021). Climate and species stress resistance modulate the higher survival of large seedlings in forest restorations worldwide. Ecological Applications. 31(6): e02394.
- Barr, H.D. and Weatherley, P.E. (1962). A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficit in leaves. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 15: 413-428.
- Chaimala, A., Jogloy, S., Vorasoot, N.C., Holbrook, C., Kvien, C.K., Laohasiriwong, S. (2021). The variation of relative water content, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading, stomatal conductance, leaf area, and specific leaf area of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes under different durations of terminal drought in tropical region. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12561
- Choyal, P., Tomar, M., Rana, V.S., Suthar, M.K., Tripathi, K., Kalariya, K.A., Singh, B. (2022). Chemical manipulation of source and sink dynamics improves significantly the root biomass and the withanolides yield in Withania somnifera. Industrial Crops and Products. 188: 115577.
- EL Sabagh, A., Hossain, A., Islam, M., Barutcular, C., Ratnasekera, D., Gormus, O., Hasanuzzaman, M. (2020). Drought and heat stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Consequences and their possible mitigation strategies. Agronomic crops. 613-634.
- Farid, M., Nasaruddin, Y.M., Ridwan, I., Anshori, M.F. (2021). Research Article effective screening of tropical wheat mutant lines under hydroponically induced drought stress using multivariate analysis approach. Asian J. Plant Sci. 20(1): 172-18
- Haro, R.J., Carrega, W.C., Otegui, M.E. (2022). Row spacing and growth habit in peanut crops: Effects on seed yield determination across environments. Field Crops Research. 275: 108363.
- Hura, T., Hura, K., Ostrowska, A. (2022). Drought-stressinduced physiological and molecular changes in plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 23: 4698.
- Istanbuli T., Baum M., Touchan H., Hamwieh A. (2020). Evaluation of Morpho-physiological traits under drought stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Photosynthetica. 58: 1059-1067.
- Kalagare, V.S., Iyanar, K., Chitdeshwari, T., Chandrasekhar, C.N. (2022). Characterization of parental lines and land races of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] by DUS Descriptors. Madras Agricultural Journal. 108 (december (10-12).
- Kambiranda, D.M., Vasanthaiah, H.K., Katam, R., Ananga, A., Basha, S.M., Naik, K. (2011). Impact of drought stress on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) productivity and food safety. Plants and environment. 249-272.
- Kamrani, M.Y., Yaser, H., Asgar, E. (2018). Evaluation for heat stress tolerance in durum wheat genotypes using stress tolerance indices. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 64(1): 38-45.
- Khar, A., Singh, H., Verma, P. (2022). Mitigating abiotic stresses in under changing climatic scenario. In Genomic Designing for Abiotic Stress Resistant Vegetable Crops Springer, Cham. pp: 253-278.
- Mateva, K.I. (2022). Root trait variation and its contribution to drought tolerance in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham).
- Misra, V., Solomon, S., Mall, A.K., Prajapati, C.P., Hashem, A., Abd_Allah, E.F., Ansari, M.I. (2020). Morphological assessment of water stressed sugarcane: A comparison of waterlogged and drought affected crop. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 27(5): 1228-1236.
- Radhakrishnan, T., Rathnakumar, A.L., Mahatma, M.K., Chandramohan, S., Patel, S. (2022). Genetic Resources of Groundnut. In Cash Crops. Springer, Cham. pp: 341-406.
- Reddy, T.Y., Reddy, V.R., Anbumozhi, V. (2003). Physiological responses of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) to drought stress and its amelioration: A critical review. Plant growth regulation. 41(1): 75-88.
- Salazar Licea, L.C. (2022). Understanding the genetic and physiological basis of drought resistance in Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham).
- Sowmya, M. and Nadaf, H.L. (2022). Studies on genetic variability for pod yield related traits in two F2 populations of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). 11(9): 525-528.
- Trifunovi, M., Miloševiæ, S., Markoviæ, M., Ðuriæ, M., Jevremoviæ, S., Dragiæeviæ, I.È., Subotiæ, A.R. (2021). Changes in photosynthetic pigments content in non-transformed and AtCKX transgenic centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafn) shoots grown under salt stress in vitro. Agronomy. 11(10): 2056.
- Uni, D., Sheffer, E., Winters, G., Lima, A.C., Fox, H., Klein, T. (2022). Peak photosynthesis at summer midday in Acacia trees growing in a hyper-arid habitat. Trees. 1-13.
- Wang, X., Chen, C.Y., Dang, P., Carter, J., Zhao, S., Lamb, M.C., Feng, Y. (2022). Variabilities in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and carbon isotope discrimination among peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes under drought stress. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/ jac.12619.
- Xu, J., Cai, M., Li, J., Chen, B., Chen, Z., Jia, W., Xu, Z. (2022). Physiological, biochemical and metabolomic mechanisms of mitigation of drought stress-induced tobacco growth inhibition by spermidine. Industrial Crops and Products. 181: 114844.
- Zhang, P., Gu, S., Wang, Y., Xu, C., Zhao, Y., Liu, X., Huang, S. (2022). The relationships between maize (Zea mays l.) lodging resistance and yield formation depend on dry matter allocation to ear and stem. The Crop Journal. 20: 171.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.