Legume Research

  • Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu

  • Print ISSN 0250-5371

  • Online ISSN 0976-0571

  • NAAS Rating 6.80

  • SJR 0.391

  • Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus

Biofertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizers Effect on Favorable Characters for Productivity of Chickpea in Bundelkhand of Madhya Pradesh

R.K. Singh1, S.R.K. Singh2, Uttam Tripathi3, Varsha Shrivastava2, C.R. Kantwa4,*, Sushil Kumar4
1Department of Agronomy, Krishi Vigyan Kendra Chhatarpur-471 201, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2ICAR- Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute, Jabalpur-482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India.
3Department of Agriculture Extension, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Satna-485 331, Madhya Pradesh, India.
4Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ratlam-457 339, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • Submitted26-09-2022|

  • Accepted16-01-2023|

  • First Online 08-02-2023|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-5050

Background: A field experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chhatarpur during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19 to evaluate the effect of biofertilizers with 75% recommended dose of fertilizers on growth, yield, nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiency and B:C ratio of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

Methods: In the two consecutive rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19, the experiment was laid out in randomized block design with improved wilt resistant variety of chickpea (JAKI 9218). Experiment consisted of five treatments including T0 (control), T1 (recommended dose of N:P2O5:K2O as 20:60:20 kg ha-1), T2 (recommended dose of NPK + seed inoculation by Rhizobium @ 10 g kg-1 seed), T3 (recommended dose of NPK + seed inoculation by Rhizobium and PSB separately @ 10 g kg-1 seed) and T4 (75% of recommended NPK + seed inoculation by Rhizobium @ 10 g kg-1 seed + soil application of PSB and KSB each @ 5 kg ha-1).

Result: The result showed that among the biofertilizers seed treatment with Rhizobium leguminosorum @ 10 g kg-1 seed and soil application of PSB and KSB @ 5 as above along with application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizers have been significantly enhanced root nodule formation, fertilizer use efficiency, productivity and reduced wilt infestation under this treatment followed by recommended dose of NPK + seed inoculation by Rhizobium and PSB separately @ 10 g kg-1 seed as compared to control plot.
Chickpea is a main crop of rabi season widely cultivated in rainfed areas of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. Blackgram-chickpea and groundnut-wheat is the predominant cropping pattern in this region. Due to predominant cropping pattern enhance the infestation of wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris), dry root rot (Rhizoctonia bataticola) and collar rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) are the major seed and soil-borne diseases of chickpea (Gupta et al., 2016). Besides these in modern days, intensive crop cultivation requires the use of higher quantity of chemical fertilizer, which helps in increasing environment pollution. There is a need to develop a suitable agricultural system that requires lower fertilizer input with higher fertilizer use efficiency. Therefore, the current trend needs to explore the possibility of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic ones and more use of bio fertilizers of particularly microbial origin. The use of Rhizobium leguminosorum, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Potash solubilizing bacteria (KSB) have opened new vistas of nitrogen, phosphorus  and potash nutrition. This playing pivotal roles in symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. The Rhizobia convert nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into ammonia, which is then used in the formation of amino acids and nucleotides  and solubilization of insoluble P and K by PSB and KSB through the process of organic acid production, chelation and ion exchange reactions and make them available to plants. Therefore, it may be significantly increased the root surface area, root and foliage dry weight of the chickpea yield by converting nutritionally important elements through biological process. As recognized the above facts, this study was framed to evaluate the Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on performance of improved wilt resistant variety of Chickpea (JAKI 9218) in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiency and B:C ratio under Bundelkhand region.
Field trial was conducted at the Instructional Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chhatarpur (25.035307’N latitude and 79.505258’E longitude), Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh in the Rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19 with improved wilt resistant variety of chickpea (JAKI 9218). Experiment consisted of five treatments including T0 (control),  T1 (recommended dose of N:P2O5:K2O as 20:60:20 kg ha-1), T2 (recommended dose of NPK + seed inoculation by Rhizobium @ 10 g kg-1 seed), T3 (recommended dose of NPK + seed inoculation by Rhizobium and PSB separately @ 10 g kg-1 seed) and T4 (75% of recommended NPK+ seed inoculation by Rhizobium @ 10 g kg-1 seed + soil application of PSB and KSB each @ 5 kg ha-1), which were replicated thrice in randomized block design. All biofertilizers were procured a fresh from the Microbes Research and Production Centre and Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, JNKVV, Jabalpur. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam, Typic Ustochrept having pH 6.9, EC 0.13 dSm-1, organic carbon 4.73 g kg-1 and available N, P and K as 205.1, 17.3 and 210 kg ha-1, respectively. The seed of chickpea was treated by biofertilizers (Rhizobium/PSB) @ 10 g kg-1 seed separately and PSB and KSB @ 5 kg ha-1 were applied in soil at the time of sowing as per the treatments. Seed was sown at row and plant spacing of 45 cm x 22 cm. recommended dose of nutrients (N-20, P2O5-60 and K2O-20 kg ha-1) were applied in the soil at the time of field preparation through urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. Standard recommended agronomic practices other than those under treatments were followed to grow the chickpea crop. Three randomly selected plants per plot were carefully uprooted to study the nodulation characteristics at 25, 50 and 75 days after sowing (DAS). Plant roots were cleaned under tap water and nodules were carefully detached from the roots, collected in icebox and brought to the laboratory then nodules were kept over filter paper for soaking of excess adhered moisture. At the maturity three randomly selected plants from each plot were harvested separately to study the growth and yield attributing parameters. The crop was harvested, threshed and cleaned manually and seed and stover yield per plot have been recorded. Seed and stover samples were taken separately from each plot and dried at 75°C for 48 hours then grind in a mechanical grinder. Grind sample was passed through a 2.0 mm sieve and stored for biochemical analysis. In seed and stover samples nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were estimated by modified Kjeldahl, Vanadomolybdo phosphoric acid yellow colour and flame photometric methods, respectively. Protein content was calculated by multiplying the nitrogen percentage by a factor 6.25 (Jackson, 1962) protein yield (kg ha-1) was calculated by protein content multiplying grain yield. The uptake of nutrient (N, P and K) was calculated from concentration of nutrient in grain and straw multiplied by their yield. Nutrient use efficiency was calculated by the procedure suggested by Singh et al., (2007). Statistical analysis of data was carried out by “Analysis of Variance” method (Panse and Sukhatme, 1967), the data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and treatment comparison was made at 5% level of significance.
Growth attributes
 
The results showed that the significantly higher plant height, number of branches/plant and number of roots/plant was recorded in the treatment T4 followed by T3 as compared to control plot (Table 1). However, T1 and T2 were statistically at par in same characters. Similarly, it has been reported that inoculation of chickpea with Rhizobium  and soil application of PSB and KSB enhances stem height, root length and number of roots/plant through integration with inorganic nutrients and biofertilizers, which promote growth by increase the translocation of photosynthates through fixation of atmospheric N and supply of nutrients from insoluble to soluble by the positive effect of biofertilizers on improved physical, chemical and biological condition in root zone. (Jaipaul et al., 2011 and Verma et al., 2019).

Table 1: Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on growth and development character of chickpea.


 
Phonological changes
 
Days to 50% flowering and maturity
 
Chickpea plants attained early average flowering of 5 days in the plot where no application of inorganic and biofertilizers. Due to the reduced the supply of plant nutrients as per requirement of crop plants. It resulted in poor flowering and early maturity (13 days). While, prolonged the vegetative growth delayed days to flowering 5 days and maturity 13 days under the application of 75% recommended dose of NPK along with soil application of PSB and KSB @ 5 kg ha-1 and seed treatment with Rhizobium leguminosorum @ 10 g kg-1 seed (Table 1) followed by application of 75% recommended dose of NPK along with soil application of PSB and KSB @ 5 kg ha-1. It could be due to the proper supply of plant nutrients as per demand of crop through solubilization of insoluble phosphorus and potash and provide favorable environmental condition in root zone. The dealy flowering and fruiting its resulted maturity was noted delay in line with this result, Ghosh et al., (2010).
 
Nodule number, diameter and their fresh and dry weight
 
Under the current investigation, all the tested Treatments inorganic and biofertilizers application in chickpea depicted variable results in term of nodule number, nodule diameter and their fresh and dry weight. The data revealed that the significantly higher nodule number/plant, nodule diameter and their fresh and dry weight at 25 and 50 and 75 DAS was recorded under the treatments T4 followed by Treatments T3 as compared to control. While, the lowest number of these characters were noted in control plot (Table 2).

Table 2: Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on nodulation characters of chickpea.



However, drastically reduced trend was observed in nodule number per plant, nodule diameter fresh and dry weight at 75 DAS all the treatments due to cessation of nodulation and started drying of nodules. It may be happened with the better supply of plant nutrients that created good physical, chemical and biological condition in root zone, which professed root development and improve mobility of Rhizobia in rhizosphere of root zone, It may be ultimately resulted in more nodulation due to the promotion of symbiotic process in legume crop roots with the bacteria responsible for increased the nitrogenase activity that can be related to the improved photosynthetic process which ultimately increase the nitrogen fixation and solubilization of insoluble phosphorus and potash in accordance with De and Singh (2010). While, the reduction in the nodulation could possibly due to decreasing the nitrogenase activity that can be correlated with the photosynthetic apparatus disturbance with the nodule alteration that resulted reduce the nodule number, nodule diameter, nodule fresh and dry weight at all three stages in control plot in accordance with Ayala and Rao (2002). The similar trend was recorded at 25 and 50 days stage and in case of 75 days stage, declined the number of nodules, nodule fresh and dry weight/plant due to cessation of nodulation and started drying of nodules. The results are in agreement with the findings of Nagy and Pinter (2015).
 
Yield and protein yield
 
These attributes was directly influenced by the use of inorganic and biofertilizers through provide better environment and proper supply of nutrients to crop for their better quality particularly protein and yield attributes i.e. number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and their test weight (32, 2.0 and 181.7 g) under the treatments T4 followed by T3 (30.3, 2.0 and 179.3 g) as compared to control plot of (22, 1.5 and 165.3 g) respectively. It resulted in better yields of protein, grain as well as biomass in treatment T4 (2.84, 13.8 and 20.6 q/ha) followed by T3 (2.71, 12.4 and 19.4 q/ha) as compared to control plot of (1.63, 8.4 and 13.9 q/ha) respectively (Table 3, 4).

Table 3: Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on yield and yield characters of chickpea.



Table 4: Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient uptake and protein yield of chickpea.



The development of more and healthy plants by improving the photosynthetic efficiency of the crop through enhance the utilization use efficiency of available nutrients i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potash, which resulted maximum protein, grain yield and their attributed was noticed under the application of inorganic and biofertilizers combination by their synergistic effect  and multiply nature participants in nutrient cycling  and induce the plant growth by several processes including biological N2 fixation, increase of nutrient availability in the Rhizosphere, enlargement of root surface area, enhancement of beneficial symbioses for the host plant. This resulted better productivity of protein, grain and biomass particularly protein concentration in plants is highly dependent on nitrogen and other nutrients availability (Khaitov et al., 2016, Verma et al., 2019).
 
Economics
 
Maximum gross monetary and net return was recorded in treatment T4 (₹ 55200/ha, ₹ 35800 ha-1) respectively followed by treatments T3 (₹ 4960/and ₹ 28600 ha-1) as compared to control plot (₹ 33600 and ₹ 15100 ha-1) respectively (Table 5).

Table 5: Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on fertilizer use efficiency and production economics of chickpea.



The treatment T4 was found best than rest of all treatments in terms of benefit cost ratio (2.8) followed by treatments T3 (2.6) as compared to control plot (1.8). These results are in the conformity with the work of Singh et al., (2018).
 
Nutrients uptake and nutrient use efficiency
 
Significantly enhanced nutrient uptake and fertilizers use efficiency of NPK by grain and straw under the application of 75% recommended dose of NPK along with soil application of PSB, KSB @ 5 kg ha-1 individual and seed treatment by Rhizobium legiminosorum  followed by application of 75% recommended dose of NPK along with seed treatment with Rhizobium and PSB @ 10 g kg-1 seed (Table 5). Significantly higher uptake and nutrient use efficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in linear order by more availability of nitrogen, solubilization of insoluble phosphorus and potash, which promoting the nodulation through the excite nitrogenase enzyme activity thus improve more N-fixation then more uptake and efficiency of nitrogen in grain and straw increased through synergistic and linear correlation impact between host crop and biofertilizers. Phosphorus status of grain and straw increased chickpea rhizosphere by secretion of root exudates by reducing soil PH leads to phosphorus and potash release and absorption of these by plant through anion exchange phenomena have increased the availability of phosphorus and potash due to more content, uptake and their use efficiency of both nutrients in grain and straw supporting these nutrients by Singh et al. (2018). Besides, organic sources of nutrient acts as slow release fertilizer as it synchronizes the nutrient demand set by plants both in time and space with supply of the nutrients from the labile soil and applied nutrient pools. So it enhanced the fertilizers use efficiency in accordance with Singh and Sharma (2011) and Verma et al., (2019).
 
Wilt incidence
 
Significantly reduced the wilt incidence (64.3%) under the use of seed dressing by Rhizobium leguminosorum @ 10 g kg-1 seed and soil application of PSB and KSB @ 5 kg ha-1 along with 75% recommonded dose of fertilizers followed by recommended dose of fertilizers along with seed treatments by Rhizobium and PSB @ 10 g kg-1 seed (52.4%) as compared to control plot (Table 6).

Table 6: Effect of integrated use of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on wilt incidence in chickpea.



Rhizobium leguminosarum and PSB reported to remarkably inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium sp., in both legume and non legume plants in accordance with Cheema et al., (2009). Besides all of these, Rhizobium strains (rhizobia) ability to produce volatile compounds and solubilization of insoluble phosphate  through secretion of acid by bacteria, which produce  plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins like substances that stimulate plant growth as reported by Gupta et al., (2016).
Seed treatment with Rhizobium leguminosorum @ 10 g kg-1 seed and soil application of PSB and KSB @ 5 kg ha-1 along with application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizers have been significantly enhanced root nodule formation, fertilizer use efficiency, productivity and reduced wilt infestation in chickpea and observed high economic return. The application of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers have potential to improve the net returns by curtail the cost of production in terms of inorganic fertilizers and maximizing the productivity and nutrient use efficiency.
None

  1. Ayala, S. and Rao, E.V.S.P. (2002). Perspective of soil fertility management with a focus on fertilizer use for crop productivity. Current Science. 82: 797-807. 

  2. Cheema, H.K., Sharma, P., Singh, R., Taggar, G.K., Khannas, V. and Kooner, B.S.  (2009). Efficacy and compatibility of insecticides, fungicide and Rhizobium inoculant in combination  for seed treatment in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 79(3): 190-4.

  3. De,  N. and Singh, R.K. (2010). Effect of Biofertilizers on nodulation of pea in an alluvial soil. Journal of  Food  Legumes. 23(1): 50-3.

  4. Ghosh, P.K., Das, A., Saha, R., Kharkrang, E., Tripathi, A.K., Munda, G. and Ngachan, S.V. (2010). Conservation agriculture towards achieving food security in north-east India. Current  Science. 99(7): 915-21. 

  5. Gupta, P.K., Tomar, A.K., Amule, R. and Bisen, J. (2016). Development  of Fusarium wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars as influenced by weather variables. Indian Phytopathplogy. 69: 240-3.

  6. Jackson, M.L. (1962). Nitrogen Determination from Soils and Plant Tissues. In: Soil chemical Analysis. Constable and Co. Ltd. London. Pp. 183-204.

  7. Jaipaul, Sharma, S., Dixit, A.K. and Sharma, A.K. (2011). Growth and yield of capsicum and garden pea as influenced by organic manures and biofertilizers. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 81(7): 637-42.

  8. Khaitov, B., Kurbonov, A., Abdiev, A. and Adilov, M. (2016). Effect of chickpea in association with Rhizobium to productivity and soil fertility. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science. 5(2): 105-12.

  9. Nagy, P.T. and Pinter, T. (2015). Effects of foliar biofertilizer sprays on nutrient uptake, yield and quality parameters of Blaufrankish (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 46(S1): 219-227. 

  10. Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1967). Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. ICAR Publication, New Delhi. Plants. Ph.D. thesis, University of Calgary, Italy.

  11. Singh, R.K., Dhar, S., Dass, A., Sharma, V.K., Kumar, A., Gupta, G. and Kumar, B. (2018). Productivity and profitability of soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes grown in sequence under system of crop intensification. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 88(9): 1407-12.

  12. Singh, R.K., De, N., Singh, T.K. and Rai, M. (2007). Sulphur improves  the factor productivity in pea. Vegetable Science. 34(2): 200-201.

  13. Singh, R.K., Tripathi, U.K. and Verma, A. (2018). Effect of inorganic modules on yield, nutrition composition and nutrient use efficiency in pea (Pisum sativum). The Pharma Innovation. 7(1): 569-573.

  14. Singh, Y.P. and Sharma, A. (2011). Effect of sources of phosphorus and microbial inoculation on productivity, nutrient availability  in soil and uptake of nutrients by chickpea (Cicer arietinum) grown on sandy loam soil. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 81(9): 834-837.

  15. Verma, G., Yadav, D.D., Sharma, V.K., Kumar, A., Singh, R.K., Upadhyay,  P.K. and Gupta, G. (2019). Effect of fertility levels and biofertilizers on agro-physiological performance, productivity  and quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 89(9): 1482-6. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)