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Full Research Article
Studies on Growth, Yield and Soil Fertility Status in Cluster Bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub] cv. Pusa Navbahar under Natural Farming Practice in Comparison with Conventional Farming
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Methods: Field experiment was conducted in Block-I at The Regional Horticulture Research and Extension Center, Kumbapur, Dharwad. The authentic source of Cluster bean seeds of Pusa Navbahar were purchased from Nadakatti seeds, Dharwad. Treatments are imposed as T1 (Package of Practice: FYM @ 10 t/ha, 25:75:60 NPK Kg/ha), T2 (Farmers Practice: FYM @ 10 t/ha, 12.5:37.5:30 Kg/ha), T3 (Natural Farming: Ghanajeevamrutha @ 1000 Kg/ha and liquid jeevamrtha @ 500 l/ha every fortnightly interval, with organic mulching) and T4 (Organic Farming: FYM @ 15 t/ha).
Result: Among four different farming practices, higher plant height at harvest was recorded in package of practice (80.0 cm). The higher number of pods per plant and higher dry biomass production was recorded in organic farming (102.3 and 2.14 t/ha) respectively. 26.8 per cent higher yield was recorded in organic farming (OF) over PoP. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content and uptake in cluster bean was found significantly higher in PoP (2.13, 0.58 and 1.17%) and (42.20, 11.51 and 23.11 Kg ha-1) respectively. Natural farming treatment recorded significantly lower nutrients content and uptake.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The soil samples were collected from three representative points between crop rows at 0-30 cm depth and mixed thoroughly and made into one composite sample. The soil samples upon arrival in the laboratory were air dried, grounded and sieved through 2 mm sieve to separate the coarse fragments (>2 mm). The fine earth samples were stored in separate containers and used for further analyses. Soil reaction (pH) was analysed by Potentiometry and EC by conductometry method (Jackson, 1973), per cent soil organic carbon was analyzed by wet oxidation method (Walkely and Black, 1934), available N (kg ha-1) was by Macrokjeldahl distillation (Subbiah and Asija, 1956), available phosphorus (kg ha-1) was by Spectrophotometry method (Olsen et al., 1954) and available potassium (kg ha-1) was by Flame photometry (Jackson, 1973). Plant samples were brought to laboratory and washed with 0.2 per cent dilute detergent and 0.1N HCl to remove wax, dust and any other metallic contaminants and washed with distilled water. The samples were dried in a hot air oven at 65 ± 50 C till the constant weight was obtained. The dried samples were powdered and stored in air tight containers and used for further nutrient analysis. The nutrients in plant sample were estimated by following the standard protocols viz., per cent nitrogen by Kjeldahl method, per cent phosphorus by Vanadomolybdate method and per cent potassium by Flame photometry method (Piper, 1966). The field experiment was conducted under irrigated condition. Growth and yield observations were recorded at regular intervals.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Pooled analysis of three years of data showed that there was a significant change in soil electrochemical properties under (Table 2). The pH was almost neutral in all treatments. Significantly lower pH was recorded in NF (6.56) treatment which was on par with OF (6.74) on pooled basis. Significantly higher pH was recorded in PoP. However, there was no significant change in electrical conductivity (EC) values both at flowering and after harvest in pooled data. On pooled basis significantly the higher OC content was recorded in OF treatment (0.60 and 0.66 % at flowering and after harvest, respectively). The next higher OC in soil was recorded in NF treatment. The decrease in soil pH might be attributed due to the release of organic acids during the microbial decomposition of added organic manures and increased the enzymatic activity in soil. These results are in conformity with those reported by Babu and Reddy (2000). EC of soil did not vary much due to incorporation of different organic manures and the results are in conformity with the findings of Amjad Ali et al., (2011). This might be due to build-up of higher amount of organic carbon in soil after harvest of crop which is due to addition of higher biomass to soil through farm yard manure, jeevamruthaand mulch material. Similar results were obtained by Tirupati et al., (2019) and Amjad Ali et al., (2011). Pooled analysis of three years of data were showed that there was a significant change in soil fertility status as influenced by different farming practices (Table 3). The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium status of the soils were significantly higher in PoP treatment (343.37 and 308.45, 49.37 and 39.28 and 277.63 and 223.35 kg/ha at flowering and after harvest, respectively). At flowering, the available nitrogen in FP treatment (330.42 kg/ha) was on par with PoP. The lower available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were noticed in NF and OF treatments. The increased availability of nutrients in soil in these treatments receiving both organic and inorganic sources of nutrients might be due to the direct addition through chemical fertilizers and slow release of these nutrients through organic manures, thus enriching the available nutrients pool of the soil (Thakur et al., 2011). The lower available nitrogen content in soil receiving only liquid organic manures namely beejamruth, jeevamruth and panchagavya might be due to lower content of nitrogen in them. Similar results were also reported by Singh et al., (2009) in maize-wheat cropping system grown on red loam soil.
Pooled analysis of three years data showed that there was a significant change in nutrient content and uptake (Kg ha-1) in cluster bean after harvest (Table 4). Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content and uptake in cluster bean were found significantly higher in PoP (2.13, 0.58 and 1.17 %) and (42.20, 11.51 and 23.11 Kg ha-1). However, per cent nitrogen content was on par with FP (1.97 %) and per cent nitrogen and potassium uptake was on par with FP (35.58 and 20.08 Kg ha-1). NF treatment was recorded significantly lower nutrients content and uptake. Similar results were reported by Datt et al., (2003) in vegetable pea. Combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in equal proportion to supply the recommended level of nutrients not only increased yield of pea but also enhanced the nutrient availability in soil and their uptake by the crop. Similiarly, the lower uptake of N, P, K and S in the treatment receiving only liquid organic manures was recorded and it was attributed to the in adequate supply of these nutrients during the crop growth period. These liquid organic manures namely beejamruth, jeevamruth and panchagavya contain lower amounts of these nutrients. These results of the present investigation corroborate with the findings of Dikshit and Khatik (2002).
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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