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Full Research Article
Weed Dynamics and Productivity of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as Influenced by Organic Sources of Nutrients and Weed Management
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First Online 17-03-2022|
Methods: A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2016 and 2017. The present investigation was laid out in split plot design with six sources of nutrients in main plot and four weed management treatments in sub plots.
Result: Application of treatment T5 recorded significantly higher growth parameters, yield attributes, fresh pod yield, net returns and B:C ratio of French bean which was statistically at par with T3 and T2. Amongst the weed management treatments, treatment W1 resulted in significantly lowest species wise and total weed density and biomass, highest weed control efficiency, lowest weed index, highest growth, yield attributes and fresh pod yield of French bean which was statistically at par with W2 and W0. However, the highest net returns and B:C ratio were obtained in weed free plots.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Weed flora in the experimental field consisted of narrow leaf weeds viz., Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and broad leaf weeds viz., Amaranthus spp and sedge weed Cyperus spp during both the years of study.
Weeds density and biomass
Statistically non-significant results were observed with respect to species wise and total weed density, species wise and total biomass of weeds among different sources of nutrients. However, treatment T5 recorded the lowest species wise and total weed density, species wise and total biomass of weeds (Table 1 and 2). Significant reduction in weed density and weed biomass were observed in weed free plots as compared to weedy check plots (Table 1 and 2). Among the organic weed management treatments, treatment W1 significantly reduced the species wise and total weed density, species wise and total weed biomass which was however at par with application of W2 over W3 treatment. This could be attributed to better efficacy and due to presence of glucosinolates in mustard seed meal and enzymatic hydrolysis to isothiocyanates, thiocyanate, nitriles and other compounds which may be partly responsible for phytotoxic effect and did not allow the weeds to germinate and even resulted in rapid depletion of carbohydrates reserves of weeds already germinated through rapid respiration, senescence of leaves, reduction in leaf area and diminution of photosynthesis process. These results are in close conformity to the findings of Boydston and Al-khatib (2006) and Boydston et al., (2008).
Weed control efficiency
Among the organic weed management treatments in frenchbean, treatment W1 recorded highest weed control efficiency at harvest followed by W2 in the descending order (Table 3). The higher values of weed control efficiencies in these treatments could be attributed to lower weed population and weed dry weight owing to better efficacy which might have shifted the fulcrum in favour of crop plants and therefore might have resulted in better crop growth over weedy check plots.
Among the organic weed management treatments in French bean, W1 recorded the lowest weed index followed by W2 in comparison to W3 plots (Table 3). This can probably be ascribed to improved growth and ultimately yield of crop due to the higher nutrient content by the application of mustard seed meal and rice bran and also as a consequence of effective control of weeds and reduction in the crop weed competition which might have enabled the crop to achieve better resource utilization and can be associated with lower weed count and dry weight.
Between the various sources of nutrients, application of treatment T5 recorded significantly highest plant height and dry matter accumulation which was statistically at par with T3 and T2 (Table 4). The significant improvement in growth parameters i.e. plant height and dry matter accumulation might be due to combined application of FYM, vermicompost and neem cake leading to higher availability of nitrogen which improved the plant growth due to the fact that nitrogen after being taken up by the plant is converted in to amino acids which are the building blocks of protein which might have led to increase in the rate of meristematic activity resulting in better growth characters. These results were in close conformity with findings of Sarma et al., (2011). Among the different weed management treatments, W1 recorded significantly highest growth parameters of French bean i.e. plant height and dry matter accumulation which was statistically at par with W2 and W0 treatment. The enhanced growth trend in terms of plant height and dry matter accumulation have happened due to the higher nutrient content of mustard seed meal and better control of weeds leading to efficient utilization of moisture, nutrients, space and light resulting in optimum growth characters. These results are in agreement with the findings of Ibrahim and Mumtaz (2014).
Yield attributes and fresh pod yield
Among the sources of nutrients, application of treatment T5 recorded significantly highest number of pods plant-1, pod length, average pod weight and fresh pod yield of frenchbean which was remained statistically at par with T3 and T2 (Table 4). The increase in yield attributes and marked improvement in dry matter accumulation with these treatments might be due to better translocation of assimilates towards sink, which ultimately increase the pod yield of French bean. These results are in conformity with the findings of Singh et al., (2014). Weed management treatments improved all the yield attributes and fresh pod yield of French bean as compared to those observed in weedy check plots (Table 4). Amongst the weed management treatments, W1 recorded significantly highest number of pods plant-1, pod length, average pod weight and fresh pod yield of French bean which was statistically at par with W2 and W0 treatment. This might have happened due to enhancement in the growth parameters under suitable environment situation provided by substantial reduction in inter-generic competition due to weed suppression and better translocation of carbohydrates for higher sink realization in these treatments. Similar findings were also reported by Ullah et al., (2008).
The economic feasibility and usefulness of a treatment can be effectively adjudged in terms of B:C ratio and net returns. Among the sources of nutrients, treatment T5 registered higher net returns and B:C ratio, owing to higher gross returns as compare to other treatments (Table 3). Amongst weed management treatments, highest net returns and B:C ratio were obtained with weed free treatment. Higher fresh pod yield of French bean in weed free treatment might have been responsible for the highest net returns and B:C ratio. However, treatment W1 and W2 recorded the lowest net returns and B:C ratio which was due to higher cost of cultivation in these treatments.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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